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Symbol SNAP23 contributors: mct - updated : 02-06-2019
HGNC name synaptosomal-associated protein, 23kDa
HGNC id 11131
Location 15q15.1      Physical location : 42.787.834 - 42.825.256
Synonym name vesicle-membrane fusion protein SNAP-23
Synonym symbol(s) SNAP23A, SNAP23B, HsT17016
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 37.42 kb     8 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
8 splicing 2307 23.2 211 - 1997 9070898
variant SNAP23A
7 splicing 2148 17.7 158 ubiquitous 1997 9070898
  • variant SNAP23B
  • skipping exon 6
  • - splicing - - - . intracellular . expressed in inflammatory cells 2001 11444845
    - splicing - - - . intracellular . expressed in inflammatory cells 2001 11444845
    - splicing - - - . intracellular . expressed in inflammatory cells 2001 11444845
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart   moderately
     vessel   predominantly
    Digestivepharynx   highly
    Endocrineadrenal gland   moderately
    Lymphoid/Immunespleen   highly
    Nervousbrain   highly Homo sapiens
    Reproductivefemale systemuteruscervix moderately
     female systemplacenta  moderately
     male systemprostate  highly
    Respiratoryrespiratory tracttrachea  moderately
    Urinarybladder   moderately
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow  moderately
    Muscularstriatumskeletal highly Homo sapiens
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticneutrophil Homo sapiens
    Blood/Hematopoieticplatelet Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion highly in blood
    at STAGE
    physiological period pregnancy
    Text moderately in placenta
  • N terminal half membrane targeting module
  • a plamitoylated cysteine cluster with five cysteine residues and a leucine zipper
  • an additional five AA (QPGPV) motif required for membrane anchoring
  • two T-SNARE coiled-coil homology domains
  • conjugated PhosphoP , Other
    interspecies homolog to rattus Snap23 (87.6 pc)
    homolog to murine Snap23 (87.6 pc)
    intraspecies homolog to SNAP25 (60 p100)
  • SNAP-25 family
  • CATEGORY receptor membrane , transport
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane,junction
  • target membrane t-SNARE
  • synapse
  • SNAP23 and syntaxin-2 localize to the extracellular surface of the platelet plasma membrane (
  • was localized to the plasma membrane
  • enriched in dendritic spines
  • membrane association of all SNAP25/23 proteins is enhanced by Golgi-localized DHHC3, DHHC7, and DHHC17
  • in neutrophils, SNAP23 is mainly distributed on cytoplasmic granules (specific and gelatinase-rich tertiary granules) and mediates the secretion of these granules
  • basic FUNCTION
  • regulating the transport vesicle docking and fusion
  • annexin A2 and SNAP23 are involved in the same pathway in the regulation of lung surfactant secretion
  • having essential functions in presynaptic neurotransmitter release
  • functions in regulated exocytosis pathways in cell types such as mast cells, adipocytes and possibly in constitutive exocytosis pathways throughout the body
  • play essential roles as SNARE proteins in membrane fusion events that occur at the plasma membrane
  • critical for regulated exocytosis in non-neuronal cells
  • important for the functional regulation of postsynaptic glutamate receptors
  • implicated in phagocytosis by macrophages
  • potential involvement of SNAP23 in both phagosome formation and maturation in macrophages, presumably by mediating SNARE-based membrane traffic
  • regulates phagosome formation and maturation by mediating membrane fusion in macrophages
  • phagosomal SNAP23 is likely one of the key players regulating the phagosomal environment in macrophages
  • is a key component of the endothelial SNARE machinery that mediates endothelial exocytosis
  • is involved in microvesicle trafficking and exocytosis in various cell types
  • is essential for secretory granule fusion in several cell lines
  • opposing roles for SNAP23 in secretion in pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells
  • may serve as an oncogene promoting tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells by decreasing apoptotic process
  • Syntaxin-4 and SNAP23 acted as exocytic SNAREs to release NGF from Schwann cells (SCs)
  • role for SNAP23 in the control of macroautophagy and programmed cell death
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS cellular trafficking transport
    text post-Golgi vesicle-mediated transport
    signaling neurotransmission
    a component
  • synapstosome
  • found in a complex with VAMP8 and STX4 in pancreas
  • found in a complex with VAMP8 and STX1A
  • acetylation
  • part of the secretory pathway in platelets
  • assembled core SNARE complex consisting of STX3, SNAP23 and VAMP8
    small molecule
  • syntaxin 1A (both isoforms of SNAP23)
  • syntaxin 6 (both isoforms of SNAP23)
  • binding simultaneously to SNAP25BP and SYN4
  • binding tightly to multiple syntaxins and synaptobrevins/VAMPs
  • interaction between the cargo-binding domain of kinesin-1 heavy chain KIF5B and the membrane-associated SNARE proteins SNAP25 and SNAP23
  • targeted to dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons, where it regulated trafficking of NMDA receptor subunits
  • VAMP3 regulates podosome organisation in macrophages and together with STX4/SNAP23 mediates adhesion, cell spreading and persistent migration
  • with VAMP3 and STX12, have a role in the trafficking of MMP during degradation of ECM substrates and subsequent cellular invasion
  • STXBP3 is a SNARE-interacting protein (is a potential regulator of SNAP23)
  • SNAP23 interacts with syntaxin 11
  • SNARE machinery composed of VAMP7 on TYRP1-containing vesicles and STX3 and SNAP23 on melanosomes regulates TYRP1 trafficking to the melanosome in melanocytes
  • PLIN2 inhibits glucose uptake by interacting with, and regulating cellular targeting of SNAP23 to lipid droplets
  • increased level of SNAP23-STX4-VAMP7 interaction correlates with decreased STX4 phosphorylation
  • suppressed progression of Cervical cancer (CC) and induced cell cycle G2/M arrest via upregulating CDKN1A and downregulating CCNB1
  • cell & other
    Other phosphorylated by the SNAK kinase and regulating t-SNARE assembly
    regulated by cytokines
    phosphorylated largely on serine residues in platelets activated with thrombin
    phosphorylated by IKBKB, and phosphorylation of SNAP23 controls platelet secretion
    synthesized as soluble protein and become membrane-associated via palmitoylation of its cysteine-rich domain
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes compared with that from lean control subjects
    tumoral     --low  
    in cervical cancer tissues
    constitutional     --low  
    increases likely blood pressure by inhibiting the membrane fluidity of vascular smooth-muscle cells
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    diabetetype 1 
    SNAP23-binding compound MF286 may be a promising drug for diabetes treatment