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Symbol SNAI2 contributors: mct - updated : 15-02-2016
HGNC name snail homolog 2 (Drosophila)
HGNC id 11094
Corresponding disease
PBT2 piebaldism 2
WS2D Waardenburg syndrome, type 2D
Location 8q11.21      Physical location : 49.830.238 - 49.833.988
Synonym name
  • slug (chicken homolog), zinc finger protein
  • zinc-finger neural crest transcription factor
  • protein snail homolog 2
  • Synonym symbol(s) SLUGH1, SLUG, SNAIL2, WS2D, MGC10182, SLUGH
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 3.75 kb     3 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter (TATA box)
    text structure
  • transcriptionally regulated by MYB via MYB binding sites in the 5prime-flanking region and in the first intron of the gene
  • TWIST1 binds to an evolutionarily conserved E-box on the proximate promoter to induce its transcription
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Physical map
    LOC389652 8 similar to asparagine synthetase; glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase; TS11 cell cycle control protein LOC392215 8 similar to hypothetical protein FLJ90430 MAPK6PS4 8q11.23 similar to hypothetical protein FLJ90430 LOC392216 8 similar to KIAA0565 protein LOC253986 8q11.21 similar to ribosomal protein L10a LOC389654 8 LOC389654 LOC392217 8 similar to Ig lambda light chain leader and V-region KIAA0146 8q11.21 KIAA0146 protein CEBPD 8q11 CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), delta PRKDC 8q11 protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide MCM4 8q11.2 MCM4 minichromosome maintenance deficient 4 (S. cerevisiae) UBE2V2 8q11.1-q11.21 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 2 LOC203010 8q11.21 similar to IDI1 protein LOC389655 8 similar to ribosomal protein L29 FLJ11767 8q11.21 hypothetical protein FLJ11767 LOC392218 8 similar to Band 4.1-like protein 5 SNAI2 8q11.1-q11.2 snail homolog 2 (Drosophila) LOC137133 8q11.22 similar to phosphoserine aminotransferase isoform 1 LOC389656 8 LOC389656 SNTG1 8q11.2-q12 syntrophin, gamma 1 HCP22 8q11.22 cytochrome c, somatic pseudogene FLJ25471 8q11.22 hypothetical protein FLJ25471 BTF3P1 8q11.22 basic transcription factor 3, pseudogene 1 LOC115294 8q11.22 similar to hypothetical protein FLJ10883 LOC389657 8 LOC389657 ST18 8q11.21 suppression of tumorigenicity 18 (breast carcinoma) (zinc finger protein) LOC389658 8 similar to RPLK9433 RB1CC1 8p22-q11.23 RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 GPR7 10q11.2-q21.1 G protein-coupled receptor 7 LOC392219 8 similar to ring finger protein 2 OPRK1 8q11.2 opioid receptor, kappa 1 LOC392220 8 similar to L21 ribosomal protein MAPK6PS1 8q11.23 similar to L21 ribosomal protein ATP6V1H 8p22-q22.3 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 50/57kDa, V1 subunit H RGS20 8q11.22-q11.23 regulator of G-protein signalling 20 TCEA1 3p22-p21.3 transcription elongation factor A (SII), 1 LYPLA1 6pter-p25.1 lysophospholipase I TDGF5 8q11.23 teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 5, pseudogene MRPL15 8q11.2-q13 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L15
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    3 - 2101 3 268 - -
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Reproductivefemale systemuteruscervix highly
     female systemplacenta  highly
    Skin/Tegumentskin   predominantly
    Urinarybladder   moderately
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow    Homo sapiens
    Connectiveadipose  highly
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticprogenitor cell Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
    physiological period embryo, pregnancy
    Text placenta, migratory neural crest cells
  • a domain with 20 amino acid residues at its N-terminus known as SNAG domain
  • five C terminal zinc finger motifs, responsible for DNA binding
  • a CtBP1 binding sequence
    interspecies ortholog to murine Snai2
    homolog to C. elegans CES1 (evolutionarily conserved)
  • snail family of C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factors
  • CATEGORY transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • involved in neural tube, mesoderm and neural crest development
  • transcriptional repressor protein implicated to have major role in the oncogenesis and metastasis
  • transcriptional repressor playing a critical role in the development of neural crest-derived cells
  • playing a role in the development of the melanocytes
  • repressor of CDH1 in breast cancer and of VDR in colon cancer
  • involved in the negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
  • involved in the generation and migration of neural crest
  • cells
  • acting as a negative regulator for BRCA2 gene expression in breast cells
  • acting as a transcriptional repressor that binds to E2-box motif (5'-CACCTG-3')
  • key regulator of the adipocyte differentiation and in white adipose tissu development
  • directly represses cadherin 6 during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions of the neural crest
  • key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition
  • combined expression of SNAI2 and SNAI1 is required for endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cardiac cushion morphogenesis
  • important modulator of successful wound repair in adult tissue and may be critical for maintaining epidermal integrity in response to chronic injury
  • functions as a novel regulator of osteoblast activity and may be considered a new factor required for osteoblast maturation
  • essential for controlling the transition of hematopoietic stem cell from relative quiescence under steady-state condition to rapid proliferation under stress conditions
  • in epithelial cells, promoting cell survival (a primary function, rather than being acquired concomitantly with EMT, epithelial-mesenchymal transition)
  • regulator of growth and invasion in human gliomas
  • involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition in physiological and in pathological contexts
  • functional relationship between MYB and metastasis-associated SNAI2 in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cancer cells
  • TWIST1 and SNAI2 act together to promote epithelial mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis
  • indirectly elevates the levels of CCND1 in breast cancer cells by repressing the ubiquitin conjugase enzyme UBE2D3
  • represses the UBE2D3 promoter through chromatin remodeling
  • SNAI2 and ZEB1 are important repressors of E-cadherin, contributing to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in primary epithelial cancers
  • SNAI1, SNAI2, and TCF3 can promote collective migration during branching morphogenesis of mammary epithelial tissues through key regulators of EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition)
  • key regulator of the signals involved in mesodermal induction of neural crest
  • SNAI2, and SOX9 suffice to convert differentiated mammary epithelial cells to stem cells
  • SNAI2 and SOX9, acting in concert, could function as master regulators of the mammary stem cells state
  • like MMP3, the transcriptional activities of SNAI1 and SNAI2 genes were also negatively associated with the DNA methylation status of the first intron regions
  • SNAI1, SNAI2 genes are regulated by DNA methylation and the DNA methylation of first intron were associated with their transcription in EMT/MET processes
  • SOX9 and SNAI2 may play a developmentally conserved role in regulating cell motility
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life
    nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    cell migration & motility
    a component
    DNA binding to E-box motifs
    small molecule metal binding,
  • Zn2+
  • protein
  • CDH1
  • binds to the E2-box sequence of the DNA through its C-terminal zinc-finger domains and then recruits either CtBP1 and or a SNAG-domain binding protein (e.g., Sin3A) as a co-repressor
  • interacting with UBE2D3 (directly represses the promoter of the UBE2D3 gene)
  • association of SNAI2 with CCND1 levels via UBE2D3 is important in the understanding of the complex role played by SNAI2 in the etiology and metastasis of mammary carcinoma
  • positive correlation between CXCL12 signaling and SNAI2 activity, thus corroborating the role of these two proteins in bone cellular context
  • regulated the transcription of MMP17 through direct binding to the E-box located in its proximal promoter
  • PRDX1 regulated the expression of two E-cadherin transcriptional repressors, SNAI1, SNAI2
  • PHF12 interacts directly with SIN3A, which in turn interacts with SNAI2, resulting in recruitment of the HDAC complex to the promoter region of CDH6
  • both phosphorylation, and to a lesser extent SUMOylation, of SOX9 results in a physical interaction between SNAI2 and SOX9, and SOX9 phosphorylation is necessary to cooperate with SNAI2 to trigger neural crest cell delamination
  • HMGA2 positively regulates the SNAI2 expression by directly binding to the regulatory region in SNAI2 promoter
  • VANGL1 induced the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (N-cadherin, ZEB1, ZEB2, SNAI1 and SNAI2) as well as the glioma stemness markers (CD133, ALDH1 and EPHB1)
  • FBN1, acts at the downstream of AURKA and BRCA2, promotes ovarian cancer metastasis through the TP53 and SNAI2-associated signaling
  • KRT18 critically contributes to initiating TGFB1-induced EMT via the SMAD2/3 -mediated regulation of SNAI1, SNAI2 expression in breast epithelial cells
  • IMP3 facilitates the transcription of SNAI2, which is necessary for TAZ nuclear localization and activation, by a mechanism that is also mediated by WNT5B
  • cell & other
    activated by dihydrotestosterone and EGF, providing a molecular mechanism by which epithelial cell-specific genes are silenced during prostate cancer development and progression
    activated transcriptionally in accordance with nuclear accumulation of AHR
    induced by p53 upon irradiation, at tha transcriptional level
    Other DNA methylation is one of the molecular mechanisms regulating SNAI1 and SNAI2 genes during EMT/MET process
    corresponding disease(s) PBT2 , WS2D
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional germinal mutation      
    in sporadic neural tube defects
    tumoral     --over  
    in colon cancer with invasive phenotype
    tumoral     --over  
    in mesenchymal tumours
    constitutional     --low  
    highly and transitory up-regulated during the partial-epithelial-mesenchymal transition EMT phase of tubulogenesis
    tumoral     --over  
    increased glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion and promoted angiogenesis and glioblastoma growth
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    may lead to the development of targeted drugs for the treatment of patients with obesity and/or lipodystrophy
    therapeutic benefits for patients after clinical myelosuppressive treatment