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FLASH GENE
Symbol RHOD contributors: mct - updated : 08-07-2019
HGNC name ras homolog gene family, member D
HGNC id 670
Location 11q13.2      Physical location : 66.824.288 - 66.839.487
Synonym symbol(s) RHOHP1, ARHD, Rho, RHOM
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 15.20 kb     5 Exon(s)
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
Map cen - D11S913 - FAU - PYGM PYGM - PPP1CA - ADRBK1 - GSTP1 - FGF4 - D11S1314 - D11S4184 - qter
Authors Gene Map (98)
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
5 - 1150 - 210 - 2018 29776664
3 - 906 - 144 - 2018 29776664
EXPRESSION
Type widely
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Cardiovascularheart    
Digestiveliver    
 pancreas exocrine   moderately
 stomach   highly
Endocrinepancreas    
Reproductivefemale systemuteruscervix predominantly
 male systemprostate  highly
Urinarybladder   highly
tissue
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Muscularstriatumskeletal  
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
physiological period pregnancy
cell cycle     cell cycle, G1, S
Text placenta
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • unique N-terminal extension of 14 AAs, which is not present in the classical Rho GTPases RHOA, CDC42 and RAC1, having an important regulatory role in vesicle dynamics
  • conjugated LipoP
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to Aplysia ras-related D
    ortholog to murine Rhod
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • small GTPase superfamily
  • Rho GTPases protein family
  • CATEGORY regulatory , protooncogene , signaling
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,membrane
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endosome
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
    text
  • localizes to early endosomes and recycling endosomes
  • basic FUNCTION
  • coordinated assembly of focal adhesions and stress fibers
  • linking growth factor receptors to the activation of actin polymerization
  • playing a critical role in muscle differentiation
  • involved in endosome dynamics
  • may coordinate membrane transport with the function of the cytoskeleton
  • RHOD-kinase dependent cell contractility contributes to global and local matrix remodeling, whereas RHOD dependent activation of DIAPH1 and/or other downstream effectors regulates the structure and number of cell processes
  • mediates various phenotypes of malignant transformation by RAS and SRC through its effectors, ROCK1 and DIAPH1
  • its activation is required to stabilize midzone microtubules, and to maintain the midzone structures after anaphase onset or during cytokinesis
  • participating in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton
  • is involved in the regulation of G1/S-phase progression and causes overduplication of centrosomes
  • RHOD participates in the regulation of cell-cycle progression and centrosome duplication
  • regulates actin cytoskeleton to collapse actin stress fibers and focal adhesions
  • coordinates Arp2/3-dependent and FLNA-dependent mechanisms to control the actin filament system, cell adhesion, and cell migration
  • coordinates actin dynamics and membrane trafficking
  • has a regulatory role in endosome trafficking
  • is a Golgi component with a role in anterograde protein transport from the ER to the plasma membrane
  • actin cytoskeleton is dynamically regulated by increased or decreased protein levels of RHOD
  • RHOD is an important component in the control of actin dynamics and directed cell migration
  • have a major impact on the organization and function of the actin filament system
  • has an elevated intrinsic GDP/GTP exchange activity, rendering the protein constitutively active
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, differentiation
    cell communication
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    text cell cycle progression through G1 and S
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
  • polymerization
  • Rho protein signal transduction
  • RHOD/MKL1 signaling pathway is activated during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and is a main actor in controlling the cell-specific activity of both transactivation functions of ESR1
  • a component
  • RHOD-DIAPH1 signaling facilitates malignant transformation and invasion by manipulating the actin cytoskeleton and targeting SRC to the cell periphery
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule nucleotide,
  • GTP
  • protein
  • DIAPH2 (isoform 3)
  • CNKSR1 is an effector for RHOD (CNKSR1 contains several protein-protein interaction domains, and RHOD interacts with one of these, the PH domain, in a GTP-dependent manner)
  • is activated by FGF stimulation and required for FGF-induced protrusion formation
  • endogenous RHOD is indispensable for FGF8-induced protrusion formation
  • actin nucleation/elongation function of mDia3C, which is activated by RHOD, is essential for the protrusion formation
  • RHOD activated by FGF signaling forms cytoneme-like protrusions through activation of DIAPH2, which induces actin filament formation
  • binds WHAMM, as well as the related filamin A-binding protein FILIP1 (WHAMM act downstream of RHOD in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics)
  • PLXNB1 binds in a GTP-dependent manner to RAC1, RAC2, RAC3, RND1, RND2, RND3, and RHOD
  • RHOD inhibits RHOC-ROCK-Dependent cell contraction via PAK6
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS