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Symbol RETN contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 02-05-2017
HGNC name resistin
HGNC id 20389
Location 19p13.2      Physical location : 7.733.971 - 7.735.340
Synonym name
  • resistin, resistance to insulin
  • found in inflammatory zone 3
  • C/EBP-epsilon regulated myeloid-specific secreted cysteine-rich protein precursor 1
  • cysteine-rich secreted protein A12-alpha-like 2
  • adipose tissue-specific secretory factor
  • Synonym symbol(s) RSTN, FIZZ3, HXCP1, ADSF, RETN1, ADSF, XCP1, hRes
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 1.37 kb     4 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site   enhancer
    text structure Sp1/Sp3 binding enhancing promoter activity and thereby inducing type 2 diabetes
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    - splicing 249 - 82 lung 2004 15248836
    in-frame deletion of 78 bp, corresponding to the complete loss of exon 2
    4 - 479 - 108 - 2004 15248836
    4 - 469 - 108 - 2004 15248836
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart     Homo sapiens
    Digestiveliver   highly
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    not specificadipocyte
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • C terminal stretch of ten cysteine residues with identical spacing
  • five disulfide bonds
  • mono polymer homomer , dimer
    interspecies homolog to murine Retn
  • cysteine-rich secreted protein family
  • XCP/FIZZ family
  • Adipokines family
  • CATEGORY signaling hormone cytokine
    text secreted by adipocytes
    basic FUNCTION
  • playing a role in glucose regulation and suppressing insulin ability to stimulate glucose uptake into adipose cells
  • may be playing a role in mediating hyperglycemia associated with obesity
  • playing a role for the central regulation of adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism
  • activates human endothelial cells (inducing the up-regulation of cell adhesion molecules), interferes in cytokines signaling and could contribute by specific mechanisms to the tailoring of the micro-inflammatory milieu
  • hormone that potentially links obesity to diabetes
  • can dramatically reduce apoptosis and infarct size, thus protecting the heart against infarct size/risk injury
  • structural conformation of resistin may be involved in maintaining the very fine balance in regulation of macrophage function for successful response to a variety of pathological conditions
  • may play a role in the innate immune response against intra-amniotic infection
  • up-regulated CX3CL1 in endothelial cells at comparable level to that of TNF by a mechanism involving MAPK14 and JNK MAPK and NF-kappaB)
  • adipokine correlated with inflammatory markers and is predictive for cardiovascular diseases
  • should not be considered only as an adipokine and LPS-induced inflammation does not affect resistin protein synthesis in liver and adipose tissue
  • key mediator of arthritis accumulating in the inflamed joints and exerting its pro-inflammatory properties independently of TNFalpha
  • having a potential role in atherosclerosis and especially its involvement in acute coronary syndrome
  • may play a role in the regulation of pancreatic beta-cell function
  • LEP, RETN, TNF may have differentiating roles in the pathogenesis of Systemic sclerosis (SSc)
  • RETN, S100A12 and AGER are involved in the pathophysiology of Kawasaki disease (KD)
  • inhibits myogenic differentiation and induces insulin resistance in myocytes
  • is a novel hormone that is secreted by human adipocytes and mononuclear cells and is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and inflammation
  • promotes the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in ovary carcinoma cells
  • plays an important role in inducing hepatic insulin resistance
  • may affect lipid metabolism during adipocyte maturation
  • may play a role in the process of inflammation and also in the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)
  • inflammatory protein, that additionally exhibited chaperone-like properties, suggesting a possible link between inflammation and cellular stress
  • RETN and EDN1 have been reported to inhibit adipogenesis and regulate adipocyte insulin resistance, respectively
  • is a cytokine that induces low-grade inflammation by stimulating monocytes
  • is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases
  • RETN, and LEP may have some impacts on the fetal growth and development
    signaling hormonal
    a component
  • homodimer disulfide-linked
    small molecule
  • RETN up-regulates SOCS3 through STAT3 activation in human endothelial cells
  • RETN impairs SIRT1 function and induces senescence-associated phenotype in hepatocytes
  • EDN1 stimulates RETN gene expression
  • CAP1 is a functional receptor for RETN that directly binds to CAP1 in monocytes and upregulates cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentration, protein kinase A (PRKA) activity, and NFKB1-related transcription of inflammatory cytokine
  • RETN and GRN represent novel and putative regulators of the fat-brain axis by their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) under physiological and pathophysiological condition
  • cell & other
    induced by during the conversion of 3T3-L1 cells to mature adipocytes
    Other regulated by ADD1/SREBP1c and CEBPA
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    overexpression could explain the increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with central obesity
    constitutional     --over  
    alters cardiac contractility, confers to primary cardiomyocytes all the features of the hypertrophic phenotype and promotes cardiac hypertrophy possibly via the IRS1/MAPK pathway
  • to type 2 diabetes associated with obesity and insulin insensitivity
  • increased body mass index in women
  • Variant & Polymorphism SNP , other
  • polymorphism 420 G/G increasing the body mass index in women and the risk of type 2 diabetes
  • C78S mutant protein is degraded, possibly resulting in a decreased extracellular concentration, which may predispose to obesity with type 2 diabetes
  • Candidate gene
  • may represent a new, effective indicator to predict the severity of acute pancreatitis and presence of necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis
  • ratios of ADIPOQ/LEP and ADIPOQ/RETN constitute novel predictor factors to explain polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • has potential as a useful serum biomarker for inflammation in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive myasthenia gravis (MG) (AChR-MG)
  • serum resistin expression may be useful as a marker of renal dysfunction in patients with lupus nephritis (LN)
  • may be a risk marker for ischemic heart disease
  • Therapy target
    offers protection against acute myocardial infarction
    administration of anti-resistin antibody improves blood sugar and insulin action in mice with diet-induced obesity