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FLASH GENE
Symbol RETN contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 02-05-2017
HGNC name resistin
HGNC id 20389
Location 19p13.2      Physical location : 7.733.971 - 7.735.340
Synonym name
  • resistin, resistance to insulin
  • found in inflammatory zone 3
  • C/EBP-epsilon regulated myeloid-specific secreted cysteine-rich protein precursor 1
  • cysteine-rich secreted protein A12-alpha-like 2
  • adipose tissue-specific secretory factor
  • Synonym symbol(s) RSTN, FIZZ3, HXCP1, ADSF, RETN1, ADSF, XCP1, hRes
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 1.37 kb     4 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site   enhancer
    text structure Sp1/Sp3 binding enhancing promoter activity and thereby inducing type 2 diabetes
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Physical map
    INSR 19p13.3-p13.2 insulin receptor P114-RHO-GEF 19p13.3 insulin receptor PEX11G 19p13.2 peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 gamma FLJ35784 19p13.3 FLJ35784 protein ZNF358 19p13.3 zinc finger protein 358 MCOLN1 19p13.3-13.2 mucolipin 1 NTE 19p13.3-p13.2 mucolipin 1 KIAA1543 19p13.3-p13.2 mucolipin 1 XAB2 19p13.3 XPA binding protein 2 MGC41903 STXBP2 19p13.3-p13.2 syntaxin binding protein 2 RETN 19p13.3 resistin LOC199675 19p13.3 hypothetical protein LOC199675 TRAPPC5 19p13.3 trafficking protein particle complex 5 FCER2 19p13.3 Fc fragment of IgE, low affinity II, receptor for (CD23A) UNQ431 19p13.3 DTTR431 CD209 19p13 CD209 antigen CD209L 19p13.3 CD209 antigen-like LOC390879 19 similar to DTTR431 LOC115704 19p13.3 similar to ecotropic viral integration site 5; Neuroblastoma stage 4S gene LOC388499 19 similar to lysophospholipase II; acyl-protein thioesterase FLJ23420 19p13.3 hypothetical protein FLJ23420 MAP2K7 19p13.2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 LOC388500 19 LOC388500 SNAPC2 19q13.3-p13.2 small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 2, 45kDa TIMM44 19p13.3-p13.2 translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 44 homolog (yeast) ELAVL1 19p13.2 ELAV (embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila)-like 1 (Hu antigen R) CCL25 19p13.2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 25 FBN3 19p13 fibrillin 3
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    - splicing 249 - 82 lung 2004 15248836
    in-frame deletion of 78 bp, corresponding to the complete loss of exon 2
    4 - 479 - 108 - 2004 15248836
    4 - 469 - 108 - 2004 15248836
    EXPRESSION
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart     Homo sapiens
    Digestiveliver   highly
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectiveadipose   
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticgranulocyte
    Blood/Hematopoieticneutrophil
    Lymphoid/Immunemacrophage
    not specificadipocyte
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • C terminal stretch of ten cysteine residues with identical spacing
  • five disulfide bonds
  • mono polymer homomer , dimer
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Retn
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • cysteine-rich secreted protein family
  • XCP/FIZZ family
  • Adipokines family
  • CATEGORY signaling hormone cytokine
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        intracellular
    intracellular,nucleus
    text secreted by adipocytes
    basic FUNCTION
  • playing a role in glucose regulation and suppressing insulin ability to stimulate glucose uptake into adipose cells
  • may be playing a role in mediating hyperglycemia associated with obesity
  • playing a role for the central regulation of adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism
  • activates human endothelial cells (inducing the up-regulation of cell adhesion molecules), interferes in cytokines signaling and could contribute by specific mechanisms to the tailoring of the micro-inflammatory milieu
  • hormone that potentially links obesity to diabetes
  • can dramatically reduce apoptosis and infarct size, thus protecting the heart against infarct size/risk injury
  • structural conformation of resistin may be involved in maintaining the very fine balance in regulation of macrophage function for successful response to a variety of pathological conditions
  • may play a role in the innate immune response against intra-amniotic infection
  • up-regulated CX3CL1 in endothelial cells at comparable level to that of TNF by a mechanism involving MAPK14 and JNK MAPK and NF-kappaB)
  • adipokine correlated with inflammatory markers and is predictive for cardiovascular diseases
  • should not be considered only as an adipokine and LPS-induced inflammation does not affect resistin protein synthesis in liver and adipose tissue
  • key mediator of arthritis accumulating in the inflamed joints and exerting its pro-inflammatory properties independently of TNFalpha
  • having a potential role in atherosclerosis and especially its involvement in acute coronary syndrome
  • may play a role in the regulation of pancreatic beta-cell function
  • LEP, RETN, TNF may have differentiating roles in the pathogenesis of Systemic sclerosis (SSc)
  • RETN, S100A12 and AGER are involved in the pathophysiology of Kawasaki disease (KD)
  • inhibits myogenic differentiation and induces insulin resistance in myocytes
  • is a novel hormone that is secreted by human adipocytes and mononuclear cells and is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and inflammation
  • promotes the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in ovary carcinoma cells
  • plays an important role in inducing hepatic insulin resistance
  • may affect lipid metabolism during adipocyte maturation
  • may play a role in the process of inflammation and also in the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)
  • inflammatory protein, that additionally exhibited chaperone-like properties, suggesting a possible link between inflammation and cellular stress
  • RETN and EDN1 have been reported to inhibit adipogenesis and regulate adipocyte insulin resistance, respectively
  • is a cytokine that induces low-grade inflammation by stimulating monocytes
  • is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases
  • RETN, and LEP may have some impacts on the fetal growth and development
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling hormonal
    a component
  • homodimer disulfide-linked
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • RETN up-regulates SOCS3 through STAT3 activation in human endothelial cells
  • RETN impairs SIRT1 function and induces senescence-associated phenotype in hepatocytes
  • EDN1 stimulates RETN gene expression
  • CAP1 is a functional receptor for RETN that directly binds to CAP1 in monocytes and upregulates cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentration, protein kinase A (PRKA) activity, and NFKB1-related transcription of inflammatory cytokine
  • RETN and GRN represent novel and putative regulators of the fat-brain axis by their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) under physiological and pathophysiological condition
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    induced by during the conversion of 3T3-L1 cells to mature adipocytes
    Other regulated by ADD1/SREBP1c and CEBPA
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    overexpression could explain the increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with central obesity
    constitutional     --over  
    alters cardiac contractility, confers to primary cardiomyocytes all the features of the hypertrophic phenotype and promotes cardiac hypertrophy possibly via the IRS1/MAPK pathway
    Susceptibility
  • to type 2 diabetes associated with obesity and insulin insensitivity
  • increased body mass index in women
  • Variant & Polymorphism SNP , other
  • polymorphism 420 G/G increasing the body mass index in women and the risk of type 2 diabetes
  • C78S mutant protein is degraded, possibly resulting in a decreased extracellular concentration, which may predispose to obesity with type 2 diabetes
  • Candidate gene
    Marker
  • may represent a new, effective indicator to predict the severity of acute pancreatitis and presence of necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis
  • ratios of ADIPOQ/LEP and ADIPOQ/RETN constitute novel predictor factors to explain polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • has potential as a useful serum biomarker for inflammation in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive myasthenia gravis (MG) (AChR-MG)
  • serum resistin expression may be useful as a marker of renal dysfunction in patients with lupus nephritis (LN)
  • may be a risk marker for ischemic heart disease
  • Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cardiovascularatheromacardiac
    offers protection against acute myocardial infarction
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
    administration of anti-resistin antibody improves blood sugar and insulin action in mice with diet-induced obesity