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Symbol RALB contributors: mct - updated : 22-09-2015
HGNC name v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene homolog B (ras related; GTP binding protein)
HGNC id 9840
Location 2q14.2      Physical location : 121.010.413 - 121.052.283
Synonym name
  • RAS-like protein B
  • GTP binding protein B
  • DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 41.87 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Physical map
    DDX18 2q13 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 18 LOC389024 2 LOC389024 LOC343958 2q14.2 similar to 5-HT5B serotonin receptor FLJ10996 2q14.2 hypothetical protein FLJ10996 INSIG2 2q21.2 insulin induced gene 2 LOC389025 2 LOC389025 LOC151154 2q14.2 hypothetical LOC151154 EN1 2q14.2 engrailed homolog 1 MARCO 2q14.2 macrophage receptor with collagenous structure LOC165257 2q14.2 C1q-domain containing protein TSAP6 2q14.2 C1q-domain containing protein LOC389026 2 similar to PRO1546 DBI 2q12-q21 diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-Coenzyme A binding protein) PR1 2q14.2 voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma subunit-like protein SCTR 2q14.1 secretin receptor LOC200373 2q14.2 similar to hypothetical protein MGC10993 2q14.2 hypothetical protein MGC10993 PTPN4 2p24.3-p24.1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (megakaryocyte) EPB41L5 2q21.2 erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 5 LOC391431 2 similar to NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 FAM11B 2q21.2 similar to NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 RALB 2cen-q13 v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene homolog B (ras related; GTP binding protein) INHBB 2q12-q13 inhibin, beta B (activin AB beta polypeptide) FLJ14816 2q14.2 hypothetical protein FLJ14816 GLI2 2q24 GLI-Kruppel family member GLI2 TFCP2L1 2q14 transcription factor CP2-like 1 CLASP1 2q14-q21 cytoplasmic linker associated protein 1 MKI67IP 2q14.3 MKI67 (FHA domain) interacting nucleolar phosphoprotein TSN 2q21.1 translin LOC389027 2 LOC389027 LOC389028 2 LOC389028
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    5 - 2275 23 206 - 1990 2120779
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularvessel   moderately
    Endocrineparathyroid   predominantly
    Reproductivefemale systemplacenta  moderately
    Respiratoryrespiratory tractlarynx  moderately
    Skin/Tegumentskin   moderately
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion moderately in blood
    at STAGE
    physiological period fetal, pregnancy
    Text highly in umbilical cord, moderately in placenta
    conjugated LipoP
    interspecies homolog to simian leukemia viral (v-ral) oncogene B
    homolog to rattus Ralb (95.6 pc)
    homolog to murine Ralb (95.2 pc)
    intraspecies homolog to RALA (82 p100)
  • Ras oncogene superfamily member
  • GTP binding protein
  • small GTPase superfamily
  • CATEGORY regulatory , protooncogene
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytoskeleton,intermed filament
    text lipid-anchor; cytoplasmic side
    basic FUNCTION
  • required to suppress apoptotic checkpoint activation
  • RALA and RALB are important, functionally distinct targets for geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitors-mediated tumor apoptosis and growth inhibition
  • mediate both common and specific transcriptional programs that are associated with cancer and identify RREB1 as a novel transcriptional effector of RAL
  • with RALA, make critical non-overlapping contributions to the generation of a tumorigenic regulatory network, supporting bypass of the normal restraints on both cell proliferation and survival
  • required for recruitment of the exocyst to the midbody of this bridge to drive abscission and completion of cytokinesis
  • having a crucial function in the regulatory network that couples extracellular signals with appropriate cellular responses
  • with RALA contribute to KRas-dependent ionizing radiation resistance
  • with its effector EXOC8 are required for nutrient starvation-induced autophagocytosis, and RALB activation is sufficient to promote autophagosome formation
  • can separately engage EXOC8 to facilitate activation of the autophagy kinase ULK1 and induction of autophagosome biogenesis
  • participates in cancer cell survival and metastasis formation
  • RALA and RALB act during different phases of cytokinesis
  • RALA and RALB share the same effectors but support different aspects of oncogenesis
  • functions of RALA and RALB proteins in development, tumorigenesis, and cell proliferation and RALA and RALB act in a redundant fashion
  • expression of KRAS and RALB and possibly RALA proteins is critical for maintaining low levels of TP53, and down-regulation of these GTPases reactivates TP53 by significantly enhancing its stability, and this contributes to suppression of malignant transformation
  • RALA and RALB proteins are key mediators of oncogenic Ras signaling in human oncogenesis
    signaling signal transduction
    a component
  • prenylation
  • RALA/RALB are an important component of the Ras signaling pathway and, in addition to their role in membrane trafficking, are implicated in the initiation and maintenance of tumorigenic transformation of human cells
  • RALB-EXOC8 effector complex defines a key proximal regulatory component of the cellular response to nutrient deprivation
    small molecule nucleotide,
  • GTP
  • protein
  • interacting with EXOC8
  • interacting with RALBP1 via its effector domain
  • phosphorylation by PRKCA is critical for RALB-mediated vesicle trafficking and exocytosis
  • deubiquitylated RALB promotes the assembly of the RALB-EXOC8-BECN1 complexes driving autophagosome formation
  • RALB, but not RALA, is required for matrix deformation and cell dissemination acting via the RhoGEF ARHGEF2, which associates with the Exocyst complex, a major RAL effector
  • cell & other
    Phosphorylated by PRKCA (its function is regulated by PRKCA phosphorylation)
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral       gain of function
    in several melanoma cancer cell lines harboring an oncogenic NRAS allele, an oncogenic BRAF allele or wild-type NRAS and BRAF alleles
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target