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FLASH GENE
Symbol RAC3 contributors: mct/npt - updated : 05-11-2012
HGNC name ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3)
HGNC id 9803
Location 17q25.3      Physical location : 79.989.531 - 79.992.079
Synonym name rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3
Synonym symbol(s) p21-Rac3
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 2.55 kb     6 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
Map cen - D17S1330 - D17S968 - D17S785 - D17S802 -TK1 - D17S386 - RAC3 - D17S881 - D17S882 - qter
Authors Monis (00)
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
6 - 1077 21.4 192 - 1997 9299243
EXPRESSION
Type widely
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Digestivesalivary gland   highly
Nervousnerve   specific Homo sapiens
cells
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Blood/Hematopoieticneutrophil
Nervousneuron Homo sapiens
cell lineage specifically in hemopoietic lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
physiological period fetal
Text
  • RAC1 and neuron-specific RAC3 GTPases are coexpressed in the developing mammalian brain
  • PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • four of the five conserved functional domains in Ras associated with binding and hydrolysis of guanine nucleotides
  • a C terminal consensus sequence which localizes ras to the inner plasma membrane
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to botulinism ras-related C3 toxin substrate 3
    intraspecies homolog to RAC1, RAC2
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • member of the Rho family of GTPase
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
    intracellular,nucleus
    text predominantly localized in the perinuclear region
    basic FUNCTION
  • involved in the production of superoxide in neutrophils
  • putative regulator of mitogen-induced cytoskeletal changes essential for membrane ruffling and C-jun aminoterminal kinase JNK
  • regulator of actin filament at the plasma membrane to produce lamellipodia and membrane ruffles
  • key downstream target in Ras signaling
  • linking growth factor receptor to the activator of actin polymerization
  • activating JNK signaling pathway
  • shares with RAC1 the ability to interfere with cadherin-mediated adhesion
  • both RAC1 and RAC3 are important for the development of the nervous system, wherein they play complementary roles during late stages of neuronal and brain development
  • induces cell rounding and prevents neuronal differentiation, in contrast to its close relative RAC1, which stimulates cell spreading and neuritogenesis
  • implicated in the regulation of cell migration and invasion in metastatic breast cancer cells
  • may have a specific function in neuronal cells
  • RHO family small GTPase that is associated with cytoskeletal rearrangement
  • role for neuronal RAC1 and RAC3 in dictating proper lymphoid organ development, suggesting the existence of lymphoid-extrinsic mechanisms linking neural defects to the loss of immune-competence
  • negative regulator of the process of autophagy
  • impact of its function on cancer cell survival through its modulation of autophagy
  • RAC1 and RAC3 GTPases participate in the normal development of hilar mossy cells, and indicate that they are involved in the regulation of the migration of the mossy cell precursor by preventing their arrival to the dorsal hilus
  • interplay between RAC3, hypoxia, and autophagy could be an important mechanism for tumor progression and a good target for a future anticancer therapy
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell cycle
    cell communication
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    text cell cycle progression through G1 to S
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
    a component
  • necessary component of Ras-mediated cellular transformation
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • associated with a protein complex containing AIF, Hsp90 and dynein (suggesting a role for the co-activator in the cytoplasmatic nuclear transport of these proteins associated with cytoskeleton)
  • opposes RAC1 in the regulation of cell adhesion and differentiation of neuronal cells
  • RAC1 and RAC3 interact with GIT1, a multifunctional Arf-GAP protein, which regulates cell-matrix adhesion, cell spreading and endocytosis
  • novel role for nuclear RAC3 as an ESR1 transcriptional activator, with prognostic implications for metastatic disease
  • ICMT interacting witrh RAC3 (importance of ICMT-catalyzed methylation on RAC3 function)
  • PLXNB1 binds in a GTP-dependent manner to RAC1, RAC2, RAC3, RND1, RND2, RND3, and RHOD
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    inhibited by hypoxia that inhibits the RAC3 gene expression leading to the autophagy process, allowing tumor cells to survive until angiogenesis occurs
    Other putatively mediated by EPS58 and SSH3BP1
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    inhibits autophagy when induced by starvation or rapamycin
    constitutional       loss of function
    suppression of its function mediates a significant component of the cell death resulted from ICMT inhibition
    tumoral     --over  
    induced pro-growth and pro-migratory genes that resulted in increased migration of ESR1-positive breast cancer cells
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cancerreproductivebreast
    useful therapeutic target for ESR1-positive breast cancers
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS