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Symbol PTN contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 22-10-2019
HGNC name pleiotrophin
HGNC id 9630
Location 7q33      Physical location : 136.912.091 - 137.028.546
Synonym name
  • neurite growth factor
  • heparin affin regulatory protein
  • heparin-binding growth-associated molecule
  • heparin binding growth factor 8
  • osteoblast-specific factor 1
  • pleiotrophin (heparin binding growth factor 8, neurite growth-promoting factor 1)
  • Synonym symbol(s) HARP, HBGF8, HBNF, NEGF1, HBNF1, OSF-1
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 116.46 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site   transcription factor   HRE
    text structure
  • two AP-1 binding sites involved in the serum stimulation of its expression, while SRE (serum response element ) involvement seems to be partial and cell type-specific
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    5 - 1558 - 168 - 2018 29651006
    5 - 1479 - 167 - 2018 29651006
    5 - 1740 - 168 - 2018 29651006
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Endocrineneuroendocrinepituitary  highly
     parathyroid   highly
    Hearing/Equilibriumearinnercochlea highly
     brainbasal nucleistriatum highly Homo sapiensFetal
    Reproductivefemale systembreastmammary gland   Homo sapiens
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
    physiological period fetal
    Text early development at sites of active mitogenesis in developing glial cells and neurones at sites of neuronal and glial process formation in developing axonal tracts neuroepithelium
    isoforms Precursor 168 residues for a 136 AA mature protein
    intraspecies homolog to midkine
  • heparin binding cytokine family
  • pleiotrophin family
  • CATEGORY secretory , protooncogene , signaling cytokine
        plasma membrane
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endoplasmic reticulum
    intracellular,nuclear envelope
    basic FUNCTION
  • being essential for normal development of the catecholamine and renin-angiotensin pathways and the synthesis of different collagens
  • increasing phosphorylation of beta catenin and modulating downstream biological functions including cell adhesion tumor invasiveness and metastases
  • having an important role in angiogenesis during development and in wound repair and advanced malignancies
  • regulating the activity of different systems important in cytoskeletal stability and the strength of cell-cell adhesion in stimulating degradation of cytoskeletal proteins, through the regulation of PTPRZ1 (inactivating PRPRZ1 tyrosine phosphatase activity)
  • being an effective angiogenic agent able to initiate new vessel formation that is both normal in appearance and function, through its ability to stimulate different functions in different cell types not limited to the endothelial cell
  • playing a neurotrophic role that may lead to previously unrecognized treatment options for motor neuron disease and motor axonal regeneration
  • with its receptor, N-syndecan, may play a very important role in tumor growth and neural invasion of pancreatic cancer
  • playing a negative role in adipogenesis
  • induces the stimulation of expression of inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFA), IL1B and IL6, in quiescent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) through B-lymphocyte binding
  • importance of PTN in the regulation of inflammatory processes
  • host factor sufficient to induce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication associated with inflammatory cytokine expression
  • multifunctional growth factor, which played an important role in tumor occurrence, development, and central nervous system
  • regenerative growth factor for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and new regulator of both HSCs expansion and regeneration
  • in the prostate PTN functions as a regulator of both mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation, and androgens regulate PTN levels
  • PTN delays the maturation of the mammary gland by maintaining mammary epithelial cells in a progenitor phenotype and by inhibiting their differentiation during mammary gland development
  • PTN is a secreted component of the bone marrow (BM) vascular niche that regulates hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and retention
  • is able to induce ex vivo angiogenesis during aging and might be a new promising therapy to induce neovascularization in aged tissues as well as after age-associated cardiac, hindlimb or cerebral ischemia
  • PTN-mediated BRD2 antagonism emerges as a modulation system accounting for the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation in the vertebrate nervous system
  • PTN-mediated hematopoietic regeneration occurs in a RAS-dependent manner
  • pleiotropic growth factor that exhibits angiogenic properties and is involved in tumor growth and metastasis
  • is a cytokine found highly upregulated in the brain in different disorders characterized by overt neuroinflammation such as neurodegenerative diseases, drug addiction, traumatic injury, and ischemia
  • is a novel and potent regulator of neuroinflammation
    text regulation of growth and differentiation
  • pleiotrophin signal pathway probably participated in neural repair after peripheral nerve injury, especially in the protection of spinal cord neuron, the promotion of the speed of neuron axon regeneration, the guidance of neuron axon regeneration
  • PTN/PTPRZ1 signaling pathway may be constitutively activated and potentially function to constitutively activate ALK in human breast cancer
  • a component
  • PTN/PTPRZ1 signaling pathway may be constitutively activated and potentially function to constitutively activate ALK in human breast cancer
    small molecule
  • RPTP beta/zeta is a functional receptor for PTN
  • PTN antagonized the cell-cycle-stimulating activity associated with BRD2, thus enhancing induced neuronal differentiation
  • PTN interacted directly with NRP1 through its thrombospondin type-I repeat domains
  • CDK5 is activated by PTN, regulates PTN-induced cell migration and is an attractive target for the inhibition of PTN pro-angiogenic properties
  • cell & other
    Other developmentally regulated
    regulated by MDK
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in acutely denervated distal sciatic nerves
    tumoral     --over  
    closely related to an advanced stage of pancreatic tumor, lymph node metastasis, and decreased postoperative survival
    constitutional     --over  
    elevated plasma MDK and PTN levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
    constitutional     --over  
    is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of Hypertrophic scar (HS)
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
  • PTN may be a novel candidate to improve sensorineural hearing loss treatment
  • Marker
  • MDK and PTN growth factors might be likely useful as markers for infection in pregnancies
  • co-expression of MDK and PTN is significantly correlated with prognosis in glioma patients
  • PTN can serve as a promising biomarker to predict unfavorable survival outcomes in cancer
  • Therapy target
    would become a controllable target for improving the repairing effect of peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction
    may be a potential target for tumor treatment
    Ptn knockout mice exhibit severe deficits in auditory brainstem responses, which indicates the importance of Ptn in inner ear development and function