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FLASH GENE
Symbol PTN contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 22-10-2019
HGNC name pleiotrophin
HGNC id 9630
Location 7q33      Physical location : 136.912.091 - 137.028.546
Synonym name
  • neurite growth factor
  • heparin affin regulatory protein
  • heparin-binding growth-associated molecule
  • heparin binding growth factor 8
  • osteoblast-specific factor 1
  • pleiotrophin (heparin binding growth factor 8, neurite growth-promoting factor 1)
  • Synonym symbol(s) HARP, HBGF8, HBNF, NEGF1, HBNF1, OSF-1
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 116.46 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site   transcription factor   HRE
    text structure
  • two AP-1 binding sites involved in the serum stimulation of its expression, while SRE (serum response element ) involvement seems to be partial and cell type-specific
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Physical map
    LOC340351 7q33 hypothetical protein LOC340351 LOC346671 7q33 pseudogene of RING finger protein 14 FLJ11000 7q33 hypothetical protein FLJ11000 MGC5242 7q33 hypothetical protein MGC5242 KIAA1466 7q33 KIAA1466 protein HSPC049 7q33 HSPC049 protein LOC346673 7q33 STRA8 LOC346674 7q33 similar to Na+/L-ascorbic acid transporter 1; SVCT1 CNOT4 7q33 CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 4 LOC392099 7 hypothetical gene supported by AK075360; NM_003002 NUP205 7q33 nucleoporin 205kDa LOC136321 7q33 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L15 SLC13A4 7q33 solute carrier family 13 (sodium/sulfate symporters), member 4 LOC389558 7 similar to HWKM1940 MTPN 7q33-q35 myotrophin LOC392100 7 similar to protease (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase 1 LOC389559 7 LOC389559 CHRM2 7q31-q35 cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 LOC389560 7 LOC389560 PTN 7q33-q34 pleiotrophin (heparin binding growth factor 8, neurite growth-promoting factor 1) DGKI 7q32.3-q33 diacylglycerol kinase, iota CREB3L2 7q33-q34 cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 2 AKR1D1 7q32-q33 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member D1 (delta 4-3-ketosteroid-5-beta-reductase) LOC392101 7 similar to dJ753D5.2 (novel protein similar to RPS17 (40S ribosomal protein S17)) LOC392102 7 similar to prothymosin, alpha (gene sequence 28) LOC136307 7q34 similar to inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 1 isoform b; sWSS2608 TIF1 7q32-q34 transcriptional intermediary factor 1 LOC136306 7q34 hypothetical protein LOC136306 LOC392103 7 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L17 (L23) LOC202789 7q34 similar to Ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial precursor (Rieske iron-sulfur protein) (RISP) ATP6V0A4 7q33-q34 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit a isoform 4 KIAA1549 7q34 KIAA1549 protein MGC14289 7q34 similar to RIKEN cDNA 1200014N16 gene ZC3HAV1 7q34 zinc finger CCCH type, antiviral 1 FLJ12571 7q34 hypothetical protein FLJ12571 LOC389561 7 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L37a FLJ25778 7q34 hypothetical protein FLJ25778 HSPC268 7q34 hypothetical protein HSPC268 LUC7L2 7q34 LUC7-like 2 (S. cerevisiae) FLJ44186 7q34 FLJ44186 protein LOC392104 7 similar to heat shock 70kD protein binding protein; progesterone receptor-associated p48 protein; putative tumor suppressor ST13; Hsp70-interacting protein HIPK2 7q32-q34 homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    5 - 1558 - 168 - 2018 29651006
    5 - 1479 - 167 - 2018 29651006
    5 - 1740 - 168 - 2018 29651006
    EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Endocrineneuroendocrinepituitary  highly
     parathyroid   highly
    Hearing/Equilibriumearinnercochlea highly
    Nervousbrainhindbraincerebellum  
     brainbasal nucleistriatum highly Homo sapiensFetal
    Reproductivefemale systembreastmammary gland   Homo sapiens
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Skeletonosteoblast
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period fetal
    Text early development at sites of active mitogenesis in developing glial cells and neurones at sites of neuronal and glial process formation in developing axonal tracts neuroepithelium
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
    isoforms Precursor 168 residues for a 136 AA mature protein
    HOMOLOGY
    intraspecies homolog to midkine
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • heparin binding cytokine family
  • pleiotrophin family
  • CATEGORY secretory , protooncogene , signaling cytokine
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endoplasmic reticulum
    intracellular,nuclear envelope
    basic FUNCTION
  • being essential for normal development of the catecholamine and renin-angiotensin pathways and the synthesis of different collagens
  • increasing phosphorylation of beta catenin and modulating downstream biological functions including cell adhesion tumor invasiveness and metastases
  • having an important role in angiogenesis during development and in wound repair and advanced malignancies
  • regulating the activity of different systems important in cytoskeletal stability and the strength of cell-cell adhesion in stimulating degradation of cytoskeletal proteins, through the regulation of PTPRZ1 (inactivating PRPRZ1 tyrosine phosphatase activity)
  • being an effective angiogenic agent able to initiate new vessel formation that is both normal in appearance and function, through its ability to stimulate different functions in different cell types not limited to the endothelial cell
  • playing a neurotrophic role that may lead to previously unrecognized treatment options for motor neuron disease and motor axonal regeneration
  • with its receptor, N-syndecan, may play a very important role in tumor growth and neural invasion of pancreatic cancer
  • playing a negative role in adipogenesis
  • induces the stimulation of expression of inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFA), IL1B and IL6, in quiescent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) through B-lymphocyte binding
  • importance of PTN in the regulation of inflammatory processes
  • host factor sufficient to induce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication associated with inflammatory cytokine expression
  • multifunctional growth factor, which played an important role in tumor occurrence, development, and central nervous system
  • regenerative growth factor for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and new regulator of both HSCs expansion and regeneration
  • in the prostate PTN functions as a regulator of both mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation, and androgens regulate PTN levels
  • PTN delays the maturation of the mammary gland by maintaining mammary epithelial cells in a progenitor phenotype and by inhibiting their differentiation during mammary gland development
  • PTN is a secreted component of the bone marrow (BM) vascular niche that regulates hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and retention
  • is able to induce ex vivo angiogenesis during aging and might be a new promising therapy to induce neovascularization in aged tissues as well as after age-associated cardiac, hindlimb or cerebral ischemia
  • PTN-mediated BRD2 antagonism emerges as a modulation system accounting for the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation in the vertebrate nervous system
  • PTN-mediated hematopoietic regeneration occurs in a RAS-dependent manner
  • pleiotropic growth factor that exhibits angiogenic properties and is involved in tumor growth and metastasis
  • is a cytokine found highly upregulated in the brain in different disorders characterized by overt neuroinflammation such as neurodegenerative diseases, drug addiction, traumatic injury, and ischemia
  • is a novel and potent regulator of neuroinflammation
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    text regulation of growth and differentiation
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
  • pleiotrophin signal pathway probably participated in neural repair after peripheral nerve injury, especially in the protection of spinal cord neuron, the promotion of the speed of neuron axon regeneration, the guidance of neuron axon regeneration
  • PTN/PTPRZ1 signaling pathway may be constitutively activated and potentially function to constitutively activate ALK in human breast cancer
  • a component
  • PTN/PTPRZ1 signaling pathway may be constitutively activated and potentially function to constitutively activate ALK in human breast cancer
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • RPTP beta/zeta is a functional receptor for PTN
  • PTN antagonized the cell-cycle-stimulating activity associated with BRD2, thus enhancing induced neuronal differentiation
  • PTN interacted directly with NRP1 through its thrombospondin type-I repeat domains
  • CDK5 is activated by PTN, regulates PTN-induced cell migration and is an attractive target for the inhibition of PTN pro-angiogenic properties
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    Other developmentally regulated
    regulated by MDK
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in acutely denervated distal sciatic nerves
    tumoral     --over  
    closely related to an advanced stage of pancreatic tumor, lymph node metastasis, and decreased postoperative survival
    constitutional     --over  
    elevated plasma MDK and PTN levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
    constitutional     --over  
    is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of Hypertrophic scar (HS)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
  • PTN may be a novel candidate to improve sensorineural hearing loss treatment
  • Marker
  • MDK and PTN growth factors might be likely useful as markers for infection in pregnancies
  • co-expression of MDK and PTN is significantly correlated with prognosis in glioma patients
  • PTN can serve as a promising biomarker to predict unfavorable survival outcomes in cancer
  • Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    neurologyacquired 
    would become a controllable target for improving the repairing effect of peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction
    cancer  
    may be a potential target for tumor treatment
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
    Ptn knockout mice exhibit severe deficits in auditory brainstem responses, which indicates the importance of Ptn in inner ear development and function