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FLASH GENE
Symbol PTMA contributors: mct - updated : 09-11-2016
HGNC name prothymosin, alpha (gene sequence 28)
HGNC id 9623
Location 2q37.1      Physical location : 232.573.234 - 232.578.248
Synonym symbol(s) TMSA, MGC104802, PROT, PROTa
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 5.02 kb     5 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked   status confirmed
Physical map
MO25 2q37.1 MO25 protein ITM2C 2q37 integral membrane protein 2C GPR55 2q37 G protein-coupled receptor 55 TSARG1 LOC389080 2 LOC389080 PSMD1 2q37.1-q37.2 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 1 HTR2B 2q36.3-q37.1 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2B FLJ12584 2q37.1 hypothetical protein FLJ12584 FLJ23510 2q37.1 hypothetical protein FLJ23510 LOC389081 2 LOC389081 B3GNT7 2q36.1 UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 7 LOC389082 2 similar to archease NCL 2q12-qter nucleolin MGC43122 2q37.1 hypothetical protein MGC43122 GPR66 2q37.1 G protein-coupled receptor 66 LOC391490 2 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L23a MGC35154 2q37.1 hypothetical protein MGC35154 MGC4771 2q37.1 hypothetical protein MGC4771 PTMA 2q36-q36 prothymosin, alpha (gene sequence 28) PDE6D 2q36 phosphodiesterase 6D, cGMP-specific, rod, delta COPS7B 2q36.2 COP9 constitutive photomorphogenic homolog subunit 7B (Arabidopsis) LOC391491 2 similar to guanidinoacetate methyltransferase; GAMT NPPC 2q24-qter natriuretic peptide precursor C MGC42174 2q37.1 hypothetical protein MGC42174 ALPP 2q37.1 alkaline phosphatase, placental (Regan isozyme) ALPPL2 2q37 alkaline phosphatase, placental-like 2 LOC391492 2 similar to xce ALPI 2q37.1 alkaline phosphatase, intestinal ECEL1 2q36-q37 endothelin converting enzyme-like 1 LOC389083 2 similar to enterokinase CHRND 2q37 cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, delta polypeptide CHRNG 2q37.1-q37.2 cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, gamma polypeptide TIGD1 2q36.1 tigger transposable element derived 1 EIF4EL3 2q37.3 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-like 3
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
5 splicing 1223 12 111 - 2006 17012289
5 splicing 1220 11 110 - 2006 17012289
  • using an alternate in-frame splice site in the mid-coding region compared to variant 1
  • EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestivepharynx   highly
     stomach   moderately
    Nervousbrain     Homo sapiens
     brainlimbic systemhippocampusdentate gyruspredominantly Homo sapiensAdult
    Olfactory (smell)olfactory bulb     Homo sapiensAdult
    Reproductivemale systemtestis    Rattus norvegicus
    Skin/Tegumentskin   moderately
    Urinarykidney    
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Lymphoid    
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Nervousastrocyte Homo sapiens
    Nervousmicroglia Homo sapiens
    Nervousneuron Homo sapiens
    Reproductivespermatozoa Rattus norvegicus
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion highly in lymph
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES acid Hydrophilic
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a majority of acidic residues clustered in the central domain ressembling an histone-binding domain
  • a C terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS)
  • conjugated PhosphoP , Other
    HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • pro/parathymosin family
  • CATEGORY immunity/defense , regulatory , structural protein
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytoskeleton,microtubule,mitotic spindle
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleoplasm
    text
  • localized in mitotic spindle during mitosis
  • was strictly localized in the nuclei of neurons, while it was found in the cytosolic space of astroglial and microglial processes and cell body in the adult brain
  • localized in the nuclei of neurons, while it is found in both nuclei and cytoplasm in the astrocytes and microglia of adult brain
  • basic FUNCTION
  • acting as a potential modulator of the interaction of histone 1 with chromatin
  • may mediate immune function by conferring resistance to certain opportunistic infections
  • PTMA specific localization in the heads of spermatids and epididymal spermatozoa, associated with the acrosome system, supports the hypothesis of a direct function in male germ cells
  • nuclear protein involved in cell proliferation and differentiation
  • conservation of PTMA distribution in vertebrate male gametes, strongly supporting a role for this polypeptide in their physiology
  • might play an important role in the progression of Colorectal cancer
  • nuclear oncoprotein-transcription factor essential for cell cycle progression and proliferation
  • role in the development of insulin resistance
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell cycle, progression
    nucleotide, chromatin organization, remodeling
    nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    text
  • regulation of progression through cell cycle
  • chromosome decondensation in vitro, not specifically related to immune response
  • PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • acetylation
  • is a component of a linker histone chaperone
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA covalently linked to a small RNA of about 20 nucleotides
    small molecule
    protein
  • histone I
  • interacting with histones H3, H2A, H2B and H4
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    induced by mitogen stimulation
    Other regulated by c-myc
    phosphorylation of PTMA is required for its antiapoptotic activity, but it does not affect its nuclear import
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in gastric adenocarcinoma
    constitutional     --over  
    in Alzheimer Disease
    tumoral     --over  
    in several human malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
    tumoral     --over  
    by hypomethylation in gastrointestinal tumors when compared with the peritumoral tissue
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • could be used as an immunohistochemical biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma to detect patients with a high risk of recurrence
  • assessment of both PTMA and mutant TP53 expression can help predict colon cancer prognosis
  • Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    diabetetype 2 
    is a potential novel therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes
    respiratoryCF (mucoviscidosis) 
    has strong potential to be an efficacious single-molecule-based therapeutic agent for CF
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
    inducing transformation of rodent fibroblasts in vitro