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FLASH GENE
Symbol PRLR contributors: mct/npt - updated : 28-05-2020
HGNC name prolactin receptor
HGNC id 9446
Corresponding disease
HPRL hyperprolactinemia
Location 5p13.2      Physical location : 35.055.801 - 35.230.794
Synonym name
  • delta 4-delta 7/11 truncated prolactin receptor
  • secreted prolactin binding protein
  • Synonym symbol(s) PRL-R, hPRLrI, HPRL, MFAB, RI-PRLR
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 181.97 kb     11 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    alternative promoter
    Binding site
    text structure two alternative promoters hpIII, hp5n, eight coding exons 3-10, SP1 C/EBP element (first promoter)
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    text five PRLR isoforms (L, I, S1a, S1b, S1d) in abdominal and breast adipose tissues (Ling 2003)
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    - splicing 856 - - predominant in colon, liver, stomach and placenta 2003 12580759
    - splicing 284 - - predominant in bone marrow, heart, small intestine, spleen, skeletal muscle 2003 12580759
    - splicing 460 39 - - 2003 12580759
    - splicing 306 29 - - 2003 12580759
    7 - 1461 - 268 - 2003 12580759
    10 - 11581 - 622 - 2003 12580759
  • PRLR long isoform regulates nociceptor sensitization and opioid-induced hyperalgesia selectively in females (PMID: 302024801)
  • 10 - 1785 - 376 - 2003 12580759
    9 - 1631 - 288 - 2003 12580759
    7 - 11069 70 521 widely 2003 12580759
  • S1d-PRLR
  • activating the proximal signaling molecule JAK2 upon addition of ligand to transfected cells, and, unlike the long PRLr
  • 10 - 1402 - 349 - 2003 12580759
    EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Endocrineparathyroid     Homo sapiens
    Reproductivefemale systembreastmammary gland highly
     female systemplacenta  highly
     male systemtestis  highly Homo sapiens
     ovary    
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectiveadipose   
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Reproductivespermatozoa Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines breast cancer
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • two fibronectin type III domains
  • HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • cytokine receptor family
  • CATEGORY signaling hormone , receptor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic,granule
    basic FUNCTION
  • prolactin receptor activity
  • reducing the lipoprotein lipase activity by prolactin binding
  • can positively or negatively activate PRL transcription by heterodimerizing
  • inducing lactation by GH binding
  • role of the prolactin receptor in parathyroid adenomas
  • PRLR signaling complex has been implicated in the pathology of breast and prostate carcinoma
  • may have a role in bone/cartilage formation/repair processes
  • novel function for hepatic PRLR in the regulation of insulin sensitivity
  • PRLR, acting within the pancreas, mediates maternal pancreatic adaptations to pregnancy and therefore its dysfunction may increase a woman's chances of becoming glucose intolerant during pregnancy
  • is a hormone that is mainly synthesized and secreted by lactotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland
  • involvement in metabolic homeostasis including body weight control, adipose tissue, skin and hair follicles, pancreas, bone, the adrenal response to stress, the control of lactotroph cell homeostasis and maternal behaviour
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • binding to PRL, GH
  • interacting with cyclophilin A
  • CISH inhibits prolactin receptor (PRLR) signaling and acts as part of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex through interactions with ELOB/ELOC proteins
  • prolactin-PRLR signaling via MAPK may play a crucial role in the progression of endometrial cancer (EC) in hyperprolactinemic women
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    induced by estradiol in breast cancer cells
    Other regulated by phosphorylation on Thr391
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) HPRL
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral somatic mutation     gain of function
    in benign breast tumors
    tumoral     --other  
    expression is altered in parathyroid tumours
    constitutional   deletion    
    PRLR deletion from all dopamine neurons resulted in profound hyperprolactinemia
    tumoral     --over  
    in the primary breast tumor was associated with a shorter time to metastasis that includes bone
    Susceptibility to breast cancer
    Variant & Polymorphism other A150C (leu->ile) transversion at exon 6, polymorphism that might play a role in mammary carcinogenesis
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • independent prognostic biomarker for triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) patients
  • Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    metabolismlipid 
    modification of PRL via PRLR might serve as a potential therapeutic target for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS