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FLASH GENE
Symbol PRL contributors: mct/pgu - updated : 25-05-2011
HGNC name prolactin
HGNC id 9445
Location 6p22.3      Physical location : 22.287.478 - 22.303.082
Synonym symbol(s) AT4G02060, MCM7, PROLIFERA, TIOM13.7
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 10.25 kb     5 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Binding site
text structure B2 Pitx binding site in the promoter region
MAPPING cloned Y linked   status confirmed
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
5 - 1359 23 227 - 2003 12679477
resistant to cathepsin D
- - 1027 23 227 - 2003 12679477
  • also called PRL16K
  • cathepsin D-cleaved
  • potentially a physiological inhibitor of tumor growth
  • antiangiogenic and proapoptotic
  • overexpressed in postpartum cardiomyopathy
  • EXPRESSION
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Nervousbrain    
    Reproductivefemale systembreastmammary gland  
     female systemovaryovarian follicle  
    Visualeyeretina  moderately
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period pregnancy
    Text placenta and early postpartum
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
    conjugated GlycoP
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Prl
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • somatotropin/prolactin family
  • CATEGORY secretory , signaling hormone
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
    text secreted
    basic FUNCTION
  • acting primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation
  • a role in regulating adipose tissue metabolism during lactation
  • induces estrogen receptor alpha and prolactin receptor expression
  • reduces the LPL activity in adipose tissues, via PRLR
  • responds to psychological stress
  • a role in bone/cartilage formation/repair processes
  • affects insulin binding and glucose uptake in adipocytes
  • involved in breast cancer through prolactin-induced receptor down-regulation mediated by proteasomes
  • plays a critical role in many steps of breast development
  • functions as a local regulator of various cell types in the mammalian retina
  • important role for PRL in ovarian and endometrial tumorigenesis
  • decreases lipogenesis in adipose tissue as a consequence of suppressed malonyl-CoA concentration in parallel with decreased SLC2A4 expression
  • PRL present in the follicular fluid stimulates the proliferation of endothelial cells
  • prosurvival factor for human spermatozoa that prevents these cells from defaulting to an intrinsic apoptotic pathway associated with cell senescence
  • may play a role in the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome, especially antiphospholipid syndrome-related reproductive failure
  • promotes pubertal ESR1-dependent mammary ductal elongation and gene expression in the absence of estrogen, which are abrogated by the antiestrogen
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling hormonal
  • STAT5A/PRL/VEGFA signaling cascade in human brain endothelial cells (EC)
  • a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule metal binding,
  • Zn2+
  • protein
  • inhibits BCL6 expression in breast cancer through a STAT5A-dependent mechanism
  • binding the prolactin receptor PRLR, and PRL signaling is mediated through its receptor (PRLR)
  • interaction with PKM2, and inhibition of PKM2 by PRL contributes potentially to the PRL-stimulated cell proliferation
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    activated by PITX factors
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Susceptibility
  • to breast cancer
  • to increased adiposity in males
  • Variant & Polymorphism SNP
  • SNP rs4712652 near the PRL gene seems to affect body fat and adiposity in a sex-specific fashion
  • Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cardiovascularcardiomyopathy 
    inhibition of prolactin release by bromocriptine may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for postpartum cardiomyopathy
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS