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Symbol PRKRA contributors: mct - updated : 28-12-2015
HGNC name protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator
HGNC id 9438
Corresponding disease
DYT16 dystonia 16
Location 2q31.2      Physical location : 179.296.141 - 179.315.958
Synonym name
  • protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase
  • p53-associated cellular protein-testes derived
  • PKR-associating protein X
  • protein activator of PKR
  • Synonym symbol(s) RAX, PACT, HSD14, P2P-R, RBBP6
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 19.82 kb     8 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site   transcription factor
    text structure Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is the major transcription factor responsible for PACT promoter activity
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status tentative : very preliminary evidence
    Physical map
    HOXD4 2q31 homeo box D4 HOXD3 2q31 homeo box D3 HOXD1 2q31-q37 homeo box D1 LOC150978 2q31.2 similar to 60S acidic ribosomal protein P1 LOC129841 2q31.2 similar to 40S ribosomal protein SA (P40) (34/67 kDa laminin receptor) (Colon carcinoma laminin-binding protein) (NEM/1CHD4) (Multidrug resistance-associated protein MGr1-Ag) MTX2 2q24.3-q31 metaxin 2 LOC375295 2q31.2 hypothetical gene supported by BC013438 FUCA1P 2q31-q32 fucosidase, alpha-L- 1, tissue pseudogene LOC391465 2 similar to STIP1 homology and U-Box containing protein 1; serologically defined colon cancer antigen 7; carboxy terminus of Hsp70p-interacting protein; heat shock protein A binding protein 2 (c-terminal) LOC150739 2q31.2 similar to keratin 8; cytokeratin 8; keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8 hnRNPA3 2q31.2 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3 NFE2L2 2q31 nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 DKFZp451M2119 2q31.2-q31.3 hypothetical protein DKFZp451M2119 AGPS 2q33 alkylglycerone phosphate synthase FLJ30990 2q31.3 hypothetical protein FLJ30990 FLJ13946 2q31.3 hypothetical protein FLJ13946 PDE11A 2q31 phosphodiesterase 11A HCP9 2q31.2 cytochrome c, somatic pseudogene DRB1 2q31.3 developmentally regulated RNA-binding protein 1 OSBPL6 2q31-q32.1 oxysterol binding protein-like 6 PRKRA 2q31.2 protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator NUDCP2 2q31 nuclear distribution gene C homolog (A. nidulans) pseudogene 2 FKBP7 2q31.2 FK506 binding protein 7 PLEKHA3 2q31.2 pleckstrin homology domain containing, family A (phosphoinositide binding specific) member 3 TTN 2q24.3-q31 titin FLJ39502 2q31.3 hypothetical protein FLJ39502 DKFZp434O0515 FLJ25270 LOC389065 2 similar to RIKEN cDNA B830010L13 gene LOC391466 2 similar to dim1 KIAA1604 2q32.1 KIAA1604 protein
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    7 - 1906 - 302 - -
    8 - 1826 - 313 - -
    8 - 1627 - 288 - -
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart   highly
    Endocrineneuroendocrinepituitary  highly
    Reproductivemale systemprostate  lowly
     male systemtestis  highly
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectivebone  highly
    Muscularstriatumskeletal highly
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
    mono polymer heteromer , dimer , trimer
    interspecies homolog to murine Prkra
    homolog to murine Rax
  • PRKRA family
  • CATEGORY immunity/defense , regulatory
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • activating PRKR which is an interferon -induced protein and mediates the antiviral effect of the interferons
  • involved in the negative regulation of TP53 function through ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and playing a critical role in development
  • facilitating the production of small interfering RNA (siRNA) by DICER1
  • PRKRA is an important component in initiating and sustaining the DDX58-dependent antiviral response
  • stress-modulated activator of interferon (IFN)-induced double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated protein kinase (EIF2AK2) and is an important regulator of EIF2AK2-dependent signaling pathways
  • cytoplasmic RISC proteins PRKRA, TARBP2, and DICER1 are steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) binding nuclear receptor (NR) coregulators that target steroid-responsive promoters and regulate NR activity and downstream gene expression
  • stress-modulated activator of the interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR)
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    text negative control of cell proliferation immune response
    signaling signal transduction
  • the PRKRA-EIF2AK2 pathway represents a potential link between APP accumulation, EIF2AK2 activation and MAPT phosphorylation
  • a component
  • heterodimerizing with PRKR
  • is associated with a ~500 kDa complex that contains DICER1, AGO2, and TARBP2 and it associates with DICER1 to facilitate the production of small interfering RNA
    RNA binding to double stranded RNA
    small molecule
  • binding and activating the interferon induced protein PRKR
  • ring finger-containing protein that can directly bind to TP53 (interaction playing a critical role in embryonic development and tumorigenesis)
  • AGO2, PRKRA and TARBP2 were required for the efficient functioning of DICER1 in cells, and likely one of the roles of these proteins is to assure better synchronization of cleavages triggered by two RNase III domains of DICER1
  • EIF2AK2 activation by PRKRA leads to phosphorylation of translation initiation factor EIF2A, inhibition of protein synthesis, and apoptosis
  • PRKRA and TARBP2 have distinct effects on DICER1-mediated dsRNA processing
  • PRKRA contributes to EIF2AK2 dephosphorylation during HIV-1 replication
  • interface residues conserved between TARBP2 and PRKRA show that the proteins bind to DICER1 in a similar manner and by mutual exclusion
  • stress-induced phosphorylation of PRKRA is essential for PRKRA association with EIF2AK2 leading to EIF2AK2 activation
  • unexpected function for PRKRA as a negative regulator of EIF2AK2 in the context of postnatal anterior pituitary tissue, and critical role for the regulation of EIF2AK2 activity for normal development
  • cell & other
    corresponding disease(s) DYT16
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in esophageal cancer
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
  • mice deficient in Rax show reproductive and developmental defects, including reduced body size, craniofacial defects and anterior pituitary hypoplasia