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FLASH GENE
Symbol PRDM16 contributors: mct/ - updated : 18-04-2013
HGNC name PR domain containing 16
HGNC id 14000
Corresponding disease
LVNC8 left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy 8
Location 1p36.32      Physical location : 2.985.741 - 3.355.183
Synonym name
  • PRD1-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 16
  • positive regulatory domain family protein 16
  • MDS1/EVI1-like gene
  • transcription factor MEL1
  • PR-domain zinc finger protein 16
  • Synonym symbol(s) MEL1, KIAA1675, PFM13, MGC166915
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 369.44 kb     17 Exon(s)
    Genomic sequence alignment details
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Physical map
    GNB1 1p36.2 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1 LOC388583 1 similar to hypothetical protein LOC339457 PRKCZ 1p36.33-p36.2 protein kinase C, zeta FLJ31031 1p36.32 hypothetical protein FLJ31031 FLJ14100 1p36.32 hypothetical protein FLJ14100 SKI 1p36.3 v-ski sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (avian) LOC388584 1 LOC388584 FLJ13941 1p36.32 hypothetical protein FLJ13941 RER1 1pter-q24 RER1 homolog (S. cerevisiae) PEX10 1p36.33 peroxisome biogenesis factor 10 KIAA0450 1p36.32 peroxisome biogenesis factor 10 PANK4 1p36.32 pantothenate kinase 4 LOC388585 1 similar to hairy and enhancer of split 5 LOC388586 1 LOC388586 TNFRSF14 1p36.3-p36.22 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 14 (herpesvirus entry mediator) MGC26818 1p36.32 hypothetical protein MGC26818 MMEL2 1p36 membrane metallo-endopeptidase-like 2 LOC390988 1 similar to RIKEN cDNA B230396O12 LOC390989 1 LOC390989 ARPM2  actin-related protein M2 DKFZp761G0122 1p36.32 hypothetical protein DKFZp761G0122 LOC148872 1p36.32 LOC148872 protein PRDM16 1p36.23-p33 PR domain containing 16 ARHGEF16 1p36.32 Rho guanine exchange factor (GEF) 16 EGFL3 1p36.3 EGF-like-domain, multiple 3 LOC388587 1 LOC388587 LOC127262 1p36.32 hypothetical protein LOC127262 WDR8 1p36.3 WD repeat domain 8 TP73 1p36.33 tumor protein p73 LOC390990 1 LOC390990 FLJ32825 1p36.32 hypothetical protein FLJ32825 LOC388588 1 hypothetical gene supported by BC035379; BC042129 KIAA1185 1p36.32 KIAA1185 protein KIAA0562 1p36.32 KIAA1185 protein DFFB 1p36.3 DNA fragmentation factor, 40kDa, beta polypeptide (caspase-activated DNase) LOC339448 1p36.32 hypothetical protein LOC339448
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    17 splicing 8738 - 1276 - 2006 16598304
    17 splicing 8674 138.05 1257 - 2006 16598304
  • also called MEL1S
  • lacking the PR (positive regulatory domain I binding factor 1 and retinoblastoma-interacting zinc finger protein) domain
  • frequently transcribed in adult T-cell leukemia cells
  • overexpression of the zinc finger protein lacking the PR domain (EVI1 and MEL1S) in the leukemia cells is one of the causative factors in the pathogenesis of myeloid leukemia
  • aberrant expression of MEL1S associated with dysregulation of TGF-beta-mediated signaling
  • EXPRESSION
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart     Homo sapiensFetal
     heart     Homo sapiensAdult
    Hearing/Equilibriumear    
    Respiratoryrespiratory tracttrachea   
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow   
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Muscularmyocyte Homo sapiensFetal
    cell lineage preferentially expressed by stem cells throughout the nervous and haematopoietic systems
    cell lines specifically in the t(1;3)(p36;q21)-positive MDS/AML cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period fetal
    Text liver
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • one N-positive regulatory (PR) domain, which is highly homologous to SET domain
  • ten C2H2-type zinc fingers
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to murine Prmd16
    intraspecies homolog to MDS1/EVI1
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • 16 PR domain-containing proteins family
  • CATEGORY transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
    intracellular,nucleus
    text
  • is localized in the nuclei of cardiomyocytes human development and in the adult heart
  • basic FUNCTION
  • involved in regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent
  • controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells
  • specifies the brown fat lineage from a progenitor that expresses myoblast markers and is not involved in white adipogenesis
  • transcription factor that regulates leukaemogenesis, palatogenesis and brown-fat development
  • functions in brown fat precursors to restrict skeletal muscle gene expression and development
  • controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown adipocytes
  • promotes stem cell maintenance in multiple tissues, partly by modulating oxidative stress
  • required for normal cell-cycle regulation and survival in haematopoietic stem cells and other primitive haematopoietic progenitors
  • in the central nervous system, appears to promote neural stem/progenitor cell function, partly by promoting HGF expression
  • implicated in the myocyte-adipocyte fate switch in skeletal muscle
  • may be a critical node in a network that contains negative and positive feedback loops and integrates hematopoietic stem cells renewal, quiescence, apoptosis and differentiation
  • MECOM and PRDM16 are H3K9me1 methyltransferases, and are essential for mammalian heterochromatin integrity
  • controls chromatin architecture and superenhancer activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT)
  • role of PRDM16 and its PR domain in the epigenetic regulation of myogenic and adipogenic genes during transdifferentiation of C2C12 myoblasts cells
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA binding
    RNA
    small molecule metal binding,
  • Zn2+
  • protein
  • stimulates brown adipogenesis by binding to PPARG(peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) and activating its transcriptional function
  • interacted with SKI and inhibited TGF-beta signaling by stabilizing the inactive SMAD3-SKI complex on the promoter of TGF-beta target genes
  • concomitant MYOD1 and IGF2 inactivation accelerates differentiation of a brown preadipocyte cell line and induces lipid accumulation and increased UCP1 and PRDM16 expression
  • MECOM and PRDM16 initiate heterochromatin formation by inducing cytoplasmic H3K9me1, which is then converted in the nucleus by the SUV39H1 enzymes to H3K9me3
  • EHMT1 expression positively regulates the Brown adipose tissue (BAT)-selective thermogenic program by stabilizing the PRDM16 protein
  • PRDM16 is recruited to the UCP1 enhancer
  • enhances nuclear receptor-dependent transcription of the brown fat-specific UCP1 gene through interactions with Mediator subunit MED1
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    activated by activated in t(1;3)(p36;q21)-positive leukemia cells
    double MYOD1 and IGF2 inactivation (expression of PRDM16 involved in the switch between myogenic and brown adipogenic lineages was drastically enhanced by this inactivation)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) LVNC8
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral fusion      
    fusion with RUNX1 in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia showing t(1;21)(p36;q22)
    tumoral     --over  
    in the t(1;3)(p36;q21)-positive MDS/AML cell lines
    tumoral     --other  
    aberrant gene expression associated with DNA hypomethylation is implicated in leukemogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia
    constitutional     --other  
    ectopic exression in myoblasts induces their differentiation into brown fat cells
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    obesity  
    inducing the expression of PRDM16 in white fat or muscle progenitors could be powerful in fighting obesity
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS