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FLASH GENE
Symbol PARD6A contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 07-09-2016
HGNC name par-6 partitioning defective 6 homolog alpha (C.elegans)
HGNC id 15943
Location 16q22.1      Physical location : 67.694.850 - 67.696.680
Synonym name
  • Tax interaction protein 40
  • par-6 (partitioning defective 6, C.elegans) homolog alpha
  • PAR-6 alpha
  • Synonym symbol(s) PAR-6, TAX40, PAR-6A, TIP-40, PAR6alpha, PAR6
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 1.83 kb     3 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Physical map
    SLC9A5 16q22.1 solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), isoform 5 DKFZP434I216 16q22.1 DKFZP434I216 protein FLJ40162 16q22.1 FLJ40162 protein FLJ11004 16q22.1 hypothetical protein FLJ11004 CGI-38 16q22.1 brain specific protein ZDHHC1 16q23.1 zinc finger, DHHC domain containing 1 HSD11B2 16q22 hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 2 ATP6V0D1 16q22 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 38kDa, V0 subunit d isoform 1 AGRP 16q22.1 agouti related protein homolog (mouse) FLJ13725 16q22.1 hypothetical protein FLJ13725 CTCF 16q22.1 CCCTC-binding factor (zinc finger protein) LOC146206 16q22.1 hypothetical protein LOC146206 24432 16q22.1 hypothetical protein 24432 PARD6A 16q22.1 par-6 partitioning defective 6 homolog alpha (C.elegans) DKFZP434A1319 16q22.1 hypothetical protein DKFZp434A1319 LOC388284 16 hypothetical gene supported by BC032064; BC041612 MGC11335 16q22.1 hypothetical protein MGC11335 TSNAXIP1 16q22.2 translin-associated factor X interacting protein 1 FLJ13111 16q22.1 hypothetical protein FLJ13111 THAP11 16q22.1 THAP domain containing 11 NUTF2 16q22.2 nuclear transport factor 2 RCD-8 16q22.1 autoantigen UNQ2446 16q22.1 MRCC2446 PSKH1 16q22.1 protein serine kinase H1 CTRL 16q22.1 chymotrypsin-like PSMB10 16q22.1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 10
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    3 - 1270 - 345 - 2000 10954424
    3 - 1273 - 346 - 2000 10954424
    EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart    
    Nervousbrain    
    Reproductivefemale systemplacenta    Homo sapiens
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Epithelialsecretoryglandularexocrine 
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a PB1 (Phox and Bem1p) domain
  • a PDZ domain
  • mono polymer heteromer , tetramer
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Pard6a
    homolog to C.elegans Far6
    intraspecies homolog to PARD6B
    homolog to PaRD6G
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • PARD6 family
  • CATEGORY adaptor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane,junction,tight
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytoskeleton
    intracellular,nucleus
    text
  • colocalizes in the nucleus with Tax, a transcriptional activator of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 long terminal repeat
  • during early placentation, PARD6A localized to nuclei of cytotrophoblast cells but with advancing gestation PARD6A shifted its localization to the cytoplasm and apical brush border of the syncytium
  • basic FUNCTION
  • transcription factor binding
  • crucial for the asymmetric cleavage and establishment of cell polarity during the first cell divisions in the growing embryo
  • playing a role in the cell polarization and asymmetric cell division
  • acts as a scaffold protein to facilitate atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of cytoplasmic protein complexes, leading to epithelial and neuronal cell polarization
  • in the nucleus acts as a scaffolding protein in nuclear speckle complexes, similar to its role in the cytoplasm
  • activating RAC and CDC42 to a PKC signaling
  • in addition to regulating cell polarization processes, is an inducer of cell proliferation in breast epithelial cells
  • important link between cell recognition mediated through the NPHS1/KIRREL complex and PARD6A and PARD6B-dependent polarity signaling (this molecular interaction is essential for establishing the three-dimensional architecture of podocytes at the kidney filtration barrier)
  • PARD3, PARD3B, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and PARD6A, PARD6B critically regulate the apical membrane development required for epithelial organ development
  • negatively regulates trophoblast fusion via its roles on tight junctions and cytoskeleton dynamics, providing novel insight into the contribution of this polarity marker in altered trophoblast cell fusion typical of preeclampsia
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell organization/biogenesis
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    text viral life cycle, pathogenic invasion, oncogenesis
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • forming a quaternay complex with protein kinase C zeta (PRKCZ), PARD3 and CDC42
  • PRKCI-PARD6A complex regulates the cytoplasmic localization of ECT2
  • PAR polarity complex of PARD3, PARD6A, and an atypical protein kinase C (PRKCI) regulate several aspects of neuronal migration
  • PRKCI complexed with PARD6A, is considered to translocate to the apical membrane and function in epithelial cell polarization
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • GTP-bound RAC, CDC42, PKC iota/lambda and PKC zeta (PRKCZ)
  • interacting with CRB3 and ECT2
  • CDC42 and RAC1 are physiological binding partners
  • PARD6A interacts with the dynactin subunit DCTN1 and is a critical regulator of centrosomal protein recruitment
  • EXOC5 directly interacts with PARD6A, a member of the PAR complex that itself directly interacts with CDC42
  • nuclear movement during myotube formation is microtubule and dynein dependent and is regulated by CDC42, PARD6A and PARD3
  • GAB1 and PARD6A bind the PARD3 PDZ1 domain and thereby compete for PARD3 binding
  • RAC1 exchange factor TIAM1 participates in polarized cell migration with the PAR complex of PARD3, PARD6A, and PRKCI
  • PRKCI, interacts with TGFB1 receptors through PARD6A and these proteins localize to the leading edge of migrating cells
  • PARD6A-PRKCI recruitment to the premature apical membrane appears to be required for definition of apical identity of epithelial cells
  • RALA promotes a direct exocyst-PARD6A interaction to regulate polarity in neuronal development
  • LRRC4 binds to the PDZ domain of PARD6A, and interacts with PARD3
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    correlated with aggressive prostate cancer
    constitutional     --over  
    in preeclamptic placentas relative to normotensive preterm controls
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS