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Symbol PANX1 contributors: mct - updated : 23-10-2015
HGNC name pannexin 1
HGNC id 8599
Location 11q21      Physical location : 93.862.093 - 93.915.135
Synonym name
  • innexin
  • MRS1 protein
  • Synonym symbol(s) MRS1, UNQ2529, PX1, MGC21309, pANX
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 53.05 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    5 splicing 2782 58 426 ubiquitous 2006 17149368
  • multiple ATG codons at the 5' end
  • also called PANX1A
  • - splicing - 43 - in lens and retina 2006 16616526
  • 4 amino-acids insert, 22 aa upstream of the C-terminus
  • also called PANX1B
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveintestinelarge intestinecolon   Homo sapiens
     liver     Homo sapiens
    Endocrinethyroid     Homo sapiens
    Hearing/Equilibriumearinnercochlea highly Homo sapiens
    Nervousbrain     Homo sapiens
     gangliasensory gangliadorsal root   Rattus norvegicus
    Reproductivemale systemprostate    Homo sapiens
    Skin/Tegumentskin     Homo sapiens
    Visualeyeretina  highly Homo sapiens
     eyelens  highly Homo sapiens
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Muscularstriatumskeletal   Homo sapiens
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticplatelet Homo sapiens
    Nervousastrocyte Homo sapiens
    Nervousglia Homo sapiens
    Nervousneuron Homo sapiens
    not specificadipocyte Homo sapiens
    Skin/Tegumentkeratinocyte Homo sapiens
    Skin/Tegumentmelanocyte Homo sapiens
    Visualganglion cell
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • a caspase cleavage site in the C terminus of PANX1 (site B) necessary for the induction of PANX1-mediated plasma membrane permeability during apoptosis
  • conjugated GlycoP
    mono polymer complex
    interspecies homolog to rattus Panx1 (88.2 pc)
    homolog to murine Panx1 (86.6 pc)
  • innexin family
  • pannexin family, gap junction type proteins family
  • CATEGORY regulatory , transport channel
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane,junction,gap
    text multi-pass membrane protein
    basic FUNCTION
  • being a structural component of the GAP junction
  • contributing to electrical communication in the nervous system
  • may be involved in both initiation and propagation of calcium waves
  • contribute to the electrical and metabolic coupling, or to signaling between retinal neurons via the secondary messengers
  • capable of forming communicating junctions but also proved to be active in forming of unopposed hemichannels
  • may function in neurons as non-junctional channels (pannexons) at postsynaptic sites and comprises a novel component of the postsynaptic protein complex
  • with PANX3 have many characteristics that are distinct from GJA1 and these proteins probably play an important biological role as single membrane channels
  • play a role in gap junctional intercellular communication and as single-membrane channels, although many of its molecular characteristics differ from connexins (important role for pannexin glycosylation in trafficking)
  • has kinetics and dynamics that make it unique to serve distinct functions separate from connexin-based channels
  • activates the inflammasome in neurons and astrocytes
  • like connexins, may play an important role in hearing
  • PANX1 hemichannels and P2RX1 and P2RX4 facilitate ATP release and autocrine feedback mechanisms that control Ca(2+) entry and T-cell activation at the immune synapse
  • mediator of find-me signal/nucleotide release from apoptotic cells
  • plasma membrane channel mediating the regulated release of find-me signals and selective plasma membrane permeability during apoptosis, with a new mechanism of activation by caspases
  • implicated in ATP-mediated auto-/paracrine signaling, and having a crucial role potential in several cell death pathways
  • constitutes the large conductance cation channel of cardiac myocytes, and PANX1 channels potentially promote arrhythmogenic activities
  • not only facilitates growth of the primary tumor but further enhances the ability of tumor cells to metastasize
  • PANX1 channels in the kidney may regulate ATP release and via purinergic signaling may participate in the control of renal epithelial fluid and electrolyte transport and vascular functions
  • ATP release through PANX1 channels plays a critical role in maintaining synaptic strength and plasticity in CA1 neurons of the adult hippocampus
  • PANX1 channels may play an important role in mediating gut function and in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) pathophysiology
  • controls cellular properties of keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts during early stages of skin development and modulates wound repair upon injury
  • PANX1 and PANX3 are co-expressed in human skeletal muscle myoblasts and play a pivotal role in dictating the proliferation and differentiation status of these cells
  • is a large-pore membrane channel involved in the release of ATP and other signaling mediators (pMID: 25925949)
  • gap junction gene in vertebrates whose proteins mainly function as non-junctional channels on the cell surface
  • is involved in chronic pain signaling by interacting with NMDAR in neurons and with P2RX7 in glia
  • role for PANX1 channels in promoting leukocyte adhesion and emigration through the venous wall during acute systemic inflammation
  • PANX1 channel activity regulates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes and thus contributes to control of metabolic homeostasis
  • NXF2 and its co-factor, NXT1, form a complex with PANX1 and are required for co-transcriptional silencing of transposons in somatic and germline cells of the ovary
    text involved in calcium permeability
    a component
  • being part of the pore forming unit of the P2X(7) receptor death complex
    small molecule
  • associates with component of the inflammasome complex, like P2RX7 and CASP1
  • can interact with PANX2 and to a lesser extent, with PANX3 in a glycosylation-dependent manner
  • has an interaction with actin microfilaments that regulates its cell surface localization and mobility
  • on human platelets, amplifies Ca(2+) influx, ATP release and aggregation through the secondary activation of P2RX1
  • ETV4 and cAMP response elements play a role in the transcriptional regulation of PANX1 in the epididymis
  • acts as an important modulator of the neuroinflammatory response, by secreting ATP, by interacting with the P2RX7
  • insulin is a novel activator of PANX1 channels
  • cell & other
    activated by extracellular ATP acting through purinergic receptors of the P2Y group as well as by cytoplasmic calcium
    Other regulated by glycosylation (regulates pannexin intermixing and cellular localization)
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    during melanoma tumor progression
    constitutional     --over  
    in obese humans PANX1 expression in adipose tissue is increased and correlates with the degree of insulin resistance
    constitutional       loss of function
    can reduce ATP release and endocochlear potential (EP) generation in the cochlea inducing hearing loss
    constitutional       gain of function
    PANX1 up-regulation contributes to the development of neuropathic pain and stimulation of inflammasome signaling
    constitutional     --over  
    expression was significantly higher in the temporal lobe cortex of the patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) than in the controls
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    inhibition of PX2R7 and PANX1 may be therapeutic in spinal cord inflammation
    may be a viable target for the treatment of melanoma