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FLASH GENE
Symbol PADI4 contributors: mct/pgu - updated : 23-01-2012
HGNC name peptidyl arginine deiminase, type IV
HGNC id 18368
Location 1p36.13      Physical location : 17.634.689 - 17.690.495
Synonym name protein-arginine deiminase
Synonym symbol(s) PAD, PDI4, PDI5, PADI5, PAD4
EC.number 3.5.3.15
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
SPECIAL FEATURE component of a cluster, head to head
STRUCTURE 55.81 kb     16 Exon(s)
Genomic sequence alignment details
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Binding site
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
Map pter - D1S1429 - D1S1415 - PADI4 - D1S544 - D1S1283 - cen
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
16 - 2265 - 663 - 2003 12833157
EXPRESSION
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Lymphoid/Immunespleen    
Nervousbrain    
tissue
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Blood / Hematopoieticbone marrow   
cells
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Blood/Hematopoieticeosinophil
Blood/Hematopoieticleukocyte
Blood/Hematopoieticneutrophil
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
physiological period pregnancy
Text cord blood
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • N-terminal IgG-like domains bind to the regulatory domain of TP53
  • mono polymer homomer , dimer
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to rattus padi4
    ortholog to murine Padi4
    Homologene
    FAMILY protein arginine deiminase family
    CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic,granule
    intracellular,nucleus
    basic FUNCTION
  • may be playing a role in granulocyte and macrophage development leading to inflammation and immune response
  • may be mediating gene expression by regulating arginine methylation and citrullination in histones
  • catalyzing the post-translational citrullination of proteins
  • playing a role in the regulation of TP53 target gene expression
  • citrullinated the histone chaperone protein, nucleophosmin (NPM1), at the arginine 197, and citrullination of NPM1 by PADI4 resulted in its translocation from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm
  • promotes the deimination of arginine residues in histones and may regulate transcription in the context of the chromatin
  • converts peptidyl arginine to citrulline in histone H3 and can repress gene expression
  • catalyze the hydrolysis of peptidyl-arginine to form peptidyl-citrulline, and play important roles in a variety of cell signaling pathways, including apoptosis, differentiation, and transcriptional regulation
  • autodeimination of PADI4 alters protein-protein interactions but not activity
  • homodimeric enzyme that catalyzes CaČ&
  • 8314;-dependent protein citrullination, which results in the conversion of arginine to citrulline
    CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component dimeric, but monomeric PADI4 is still active but does not display cooperative calcium binding
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule cofactor,
    Ca2+
    protein
  • PADI4 and HDAC1 collaborate to generate a repressive chromatin environment on the pS2 promoter
  • interaction with TP53 (TP53 transactivated peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4) through an intronic TP53-binding site)
  • histone deacetylase (HDAC2) and PADI4 interact with TP53 through CDKN1A promoter to regulate gene expression
  • preferentially citrullinates ING4 in the same NLS region and thereby disrupts the interaction between ING4 and TP53
  • binding of PADI4 to ING4 stabilizes ING4 and protects it from rapid degradation
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Susceptibility
  • to rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  • to oesophageal cancer
  • Variant & Polymorphism SNP
  • may contribute to an inherited predisposition to RA in a Chinese population
  • Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS