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FLASH GENE
Symbol OPN4 contributors: mct/shn - updated : 29-05-2013
HGNC name opsin 4
HGNC id 14449
Location 10q23.2      Physical location : 88.414.313 - 88.426.214
Synonym name
  • melanopsin
  • opsin 4 (melanopsin)
  • opsin-4
  • Synonym symbol(s) HGNC14449, MOP
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 11.90 kb     10 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Map cen - D10S1698 - D10S1744 - OPN4 - D10S1687 - D10S579 - qter
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    11 splicing 2419 - 489 expressed in the ganglion cell layer of the retina 2009 19793992
  • Opn4L
  • 11 splicing 2386 - 478 expressed in the ganglion cell layer of the retina 2009 19793992
  • Opn4S
  • 40 times more abundant than Opn4L
  • EXPRESSION
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Visualeyeretina    Homo sapiensAdult
     eyeretina    Mus musculusAdult
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Epithelialbarrier liningretinal pigment epithelium (RPE)   Homo sapiensAdult
    Epithelialsensoryvisualinner nuclear layer  Homo sapiensAdult
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Visualamacrine cell Mus musculusAdult
    Visualganglion cell Homo sapiensAdult
    Visualganglion cell Mus musculusAdult
    VisualMuller cell Homo sapiensAdult
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
    seven transmembrane receptor
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to Opn4, Mus musculus
    ortholog to OPN4, Pan troglodytes
    ortholog to Opn4 , Rattus norvegicus
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • family 1 of G protein coupled receptors
  • OPSIN subfamily
  • CATEGORY receptor membrane G
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    text
  • dendritis cell locus proximal axonal regions
  • expressed in PACAP-containing retinal ganglion cells of the retinohypothalamic tract
  • basic FUNCTION
  • mediating regulation of circadian rhythms and acute suppression of pineal melatonin visual pigments of phototransducing RGC that set the circadian clock and initiate other non-image-forming visual functions
  • contributes significantly to the magnitude of photic responses
  • critical role of melanopsin in circadian photoentrainment in mammals
  • could activate the cation channel TRPC3
  • acts as a sensory photopigment, coupled to a native ion channel via a G-protein signalling cascade, to drive physiological light detection
  • triggers the release of internal calcium stores in response to light
  • photopigment that confers photosensitivity upon intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells
  • photoreceptive molecule regulating circadian systems in mammals
  • OPN4 signalling exists in both iris and retina, involving a PLCB4-mediated pathway that nonetheless diverges in the two locations
  • employs potentially a bistable sequential photon absorption mechanism typical of rhabdomeric opsins
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS circadian
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling sensory transduction/vision
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
    cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • melanopsin knockout mice entrained to a light/dark cycle, phase-shifted after a light pulse, and increased circadian period when light intensity increased
  • melanopsin-null mice (Opn4-/-) display severely attenuated phase resetting in response to brief pulses of monochromatic light
  • retinal ganglion cells of melanopsin-knockout mice were no longer intrinsically photosensitive, but their number, morphology, and projections were normal
  • mice lacking melanopsin coupled with disabled rod and cone phototransduction mechanisms have an intact retina but fail to show any significant pupil reflex, to entrain to light/dark cycles, and to show any masking response to light
  • mice with both outer-retinal degeneration and a deficiency in melanopsin exhibited complete loss of photoentrainment of the circadian oscillator, pupillary light responses, photic suppression of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase transcript, and acute suppression of locomotor activity by light