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FLASH GENE
Symbol NODAL contributors: mct - updated : 22-11-2016
HGNC name nodal homolog (mouse)
HGNC id 7865
Corresponding disease
HTX5 heterotaxy, visceral, 5
Location 10q22.1      Physical location : 72.191.691 - 72.201.465
Synonym symbol(s) MGC138230, HTX5
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 9.77 kb     3 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Binding site   enhancer
text structure asymetric enhancer (ASE) for left expression
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status tentative : very preliminary evidence
Map cen - D10S210 - PRG1 - D10S560 - PSAP - NODAL - D10S537 - qter
Physical map
VPS26 10q21.1 vacuolar protein sorting 26 (yeast) SUPV3L1 10q22.1 suppressor of var1, 3-like 1 (S. cerevisiae) FLJ22761 10q22.1 hypothetical protein FLJ22761 HK1 10q22 hexokinase 1 TACR2 10q22.1 tachykinin receptor 2 NET-7 10q22.1 transmembrane 4 superfamily member tetraspan NET-7 NEUROG3 10q21.3 neurogenin 3 C10orf35 10q22.2 chromosome 10 open reading frame 35 LOC389977 10 similar to ribosomal protein L5; 60S ribosomal protein L5 COL13A1 10q21.2-q22.1 collagen, type XIII, alpha 1 LOC387686 10 LOC387686 H2AFY2 10q22.3 H2A histone family, member Y2 AMID 10q22.2 apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)-homologous mitochondrion-associated inducer of death MGC34695 10q22.2 hypothetical protein MGC34695 SARA1 10q22.2 SAR1a gene homolog 1 (S. cerevisiae) CALM2P2 10q22.2 calmodulin 2 pseudogene 2 PP 10q22.1-q22.2 pyrophosphatase (inorganic) OT7T022 10q21-q22 neuropeptide FF 1; RFamide-related peptide receptor FLJ10751 10q22.2 hypothetical protein FLJ10751 LOC221017 10q22.2 similar to chromosome 6 open reading frame 182 EIF4EBP2 10q21-q22 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 2 NODAL 10q21.1-q22.2 nodal homolog (mouse) KIAA1274 10q22.1 nodal homolog (mouse) PRF1 10q22.2 perforin 1 (pore forming protein) ADAMTS14 10q21.3 a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease (reprolysin type) with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 14 C10orf27 10q22.2 chromosome 10 open reading frame 27 LOC338611 10q22.2 similar to 40S ribosomal protein S26 SGPL1 10q22 sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1 PCBD 10q22 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (TCF1) UNC5B 10q22.2 unc-5 homolog B (C. elegans) SLC29A3 10q22.2 solute carrier family 29 (nucleoside transporters), member 3 CDH23 10q22.3 cadherin related 23
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
3 - 2086 36.7 347 - 2002 12052855
- - 1876 - 214 - 2002 12052855
EXPRESSION
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Digestivemouthtongue   
Endocrinepancreas     Homo sapiens
Nervousbrain    
cells
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Endocrineislet cell (alpha,beta...) Homo sapiens
Reproductivegerm cell Homo sapiens
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSc) seem to express NODAL, NANOG and DAZL and it speculated that the regulation of self-renewal in AFSc could be similar as in human embryonic stem cells
at STAGE
physiological period embryo
Text expressed in the node during gastrulation, mesoderm formation and subsequent organization of axial structures (in mouse), left side expression pattern
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
HOMOLOGY
interspecies homolog to murine Nodal
Homologene
FAMILY
  • TGF-beta superfamily
  • CATEGORY regulatory , signaling growth factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • embryonic regulator involved in the control of the TGFD beta signaling pathway during developement,
  • involved in the direction of cardiac looping
  • having a key role in melanoma cell plasticity and tumorigenicity, thereby providing a molecular target for regulating tumor progression
  • play a key role in specification and patterning of vertebrate embryos
  • implicated in the establishment of the Antero–Posterior axis and generation of mesoderm and definitive endoderm
  • not only crucial in cell invasion, but also mediates multi-potent, plastic phenotypes and other stem cell-like properties in human melanoma
  • suppress cell proliferation and to stimulate the expression of cyclin G2 (CCNG2) in epithelial ovarian cancer cells
  • NODAL signaling promotes CCNG2 transcription by upregulating FOXO3 expression, inhibiting FOXO3 phosphorylation and enhancing its synergistic interaction with Smads
  • NBL1 might act synergistically with NODAL
  • NODAL signaling provides a molecular control mechanism that regulates male germ cell potency in normal development and testicular cancer
  • endogenous NODAL signaling regulates germ cell potency during mammalian testis development
  • during development, NODAL depends on growth and differentiation factor GDF1 and on the shared co-receptor CFC1 to specify visceral left-right axis asymmetry
  • is an essential embryonic morphogen that is associated with progression of breast and other cancers
  • plays likely a regulatory role in Sertoli cells and germ cells via a paracrine and autocrine pathway, respectively
  • NODAL produced by human male germ cells regulates proliferation and numerous gene expression of Sertoli cells
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell organization/biogenesis
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS development
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
  • activin/nodal signaling pathway (inhibition of activin/nodal signaling results in the loss of hESC (embryonic stem cells) pluripotency and trophoblast differentiation, similar to BMP4-induced trophoblast differentiation from hESCs)
  • CITED2 plays a role in left–right patterning through the NODAL-PITX2C pathway
  • signaling by the TGFB1 morphogen NODAL and its co-receptor TDGF1 is active during a crucial window of male germ cell development
  • NODAL signaling promotes male germ cell fate and suppresses female programming in somatic cells
  • a component
  • central component with EBAF, LEFTYB, PITX2 of the left-right asymetry determination (L/R) complex
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • inducing LEFTYB
  • signaling via MADH2 through binding with activin receptor ACVR1C
  • interacting with Cripto (TDGF1)
  • interacting with GDF1 (regulates the activity and signaling range of NODAL through direct interaction)
  • CITED2 may interact with both NODAL and BMP signalling in establishing laterality
  • transient inhibition of NODAL by CER1 induces Brahma-associated factor 60c (SMARCD3)
  • NANOG promotes liver cancer cell invasion by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition through NODAL/SMAD3 signaling pathway
  • NODAL·GDF1 heterodimers with bound prodomains enable serum-independent nodal signaling and endoderm differentiation
  • secreted antagonists, such as CER1, tightly regulate NODAL signaling during embryonic development
  • FOXA2 can be a regulator of NODAL expression
  • MSX2 controls mesendoderm lineage commitment by simultaneous suppression of SOX2 and induction of NODAL expression through direct binding and activation of the NODAL promoter
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    Other antagonized by EBAF, LEFTYB
    NODAL signaling pathway is activated in both male germ cells and somatic cells
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) HTX5
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in metastatic melanomas
    constitutional germinal mutation      
    cause sporadic left–right (LR) patterning defects
    constitutional       loss of function
    reductions in the biological activity of NODAL alleles in congenital heart defects
    tumoral     --over  
    expression levels are significantly higher in astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, and in malignant glioma cells compared with non-tumor tissues
    tumoral     --over  
    correlated with reduced patient survival in pancreatic cancer
    constitutional     --low  
    decreased expression of NODAL combined with haploinsufficiency for FOXA2 is the likely cause for heterotaxy, panhypopituitarism, and biliary atresia in a family (pMID: 25765999)
    Susceptibility to congenital heart disease (CHD)
    Variant & Polymorphism other
  • contribution to CHD of copy number changes in NODAL
  • Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target inhibition of Nodal signaling may be considered as a novel therapeutic strategy in glioma treatment
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS