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FLASH GENE
Symbol NEUROG2 contributors: mct/npt - updated : 12-07-2016
HGNC name neurogenin 2
HGNC id 13805
Location 4q25      Physical location : 113.434.673 - 113.437.328
Synonym name
  • protein atonal homolog 4
  • class A basic helix-loop-helix protein 8
  • Synonym symbol(s) NGN2, Atoh4, Math4A, MGC46562, ngn-2, bHLHa8
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 2.66 kb     2 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    2 - 2370 28.5 272 - 1998 9539123
    EXPRESSION
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
      limbic systemhippocampusdentate gyrus  Homo sapiens
    Nervousbrainhindbraincerebellum   Homo sapiens
    Reproductivemale systemtestis   
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Nervousneuron
    NervousPurkinje cell Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period embryo
    Text in developing dentate gyrus
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a HLH domain
  • a ser-rich domain
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Neurog2
    homolog to rattus LOC295475
    Homologene
    FAMILY neurogenin subfamily of bHLH transcription factor
    CATEGORY transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,nucleus
    basic FUNCTION
  • playing an important role in neurogenesis from migratory neural crest cells
  • proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors not only initiating neuronal differentiation but also potentiating cell migration
  • controls neurogenesis in the embryonic cerebral cortex
  • induces RND2 expression directly or indirectly by a transcriptional cascade, in the embryonic cortex by directly interacting with an enhancer located 3' to the gene
  • unique role in dentate gyrus neurogenesis during development and raise the possibility that NEUROG2 has a similar function in adult neurogenesis
  • critical role of for NEUROG2 and NEUROD1 in controlling neuronal commitment and hippocampal granule neuroblast formation, both during embryonic development and in post-natal hippocampal granule neurogenesis
  • transcription factor of importance for the differentiation and survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons
  • NEUROG2 and ASCL1 regulate the temporal progression of retinal neurogenesis by directing overlapping waves of neuron formation
  • acts as a master regulator of neuronal differentiation
  • is essential for neuronal commitment, cell cycle withdrawal, and neuronal differentiation
  • drives cell cycle exit of neuronal precursors by specifically repressing a subset of cyclins acting at the G1 and S phases of the cell cycle
  • during central nervous system development, NEUROG2 contributes to many distinct neuronal types by specifying their fate and/or dictating development of their morphological features
  • represents a key regulator of Purkinje cells (PCs) development and maturation
  • NEUROG2 simultaneously activates and represses alternative gene expression programs in the developing neocortex
  • NEUROG1/NEUROG2 together coordinate development of the olfactory system, which depends on tissue interactions between the olfactory bulb and epithelium
  • NEUROG1 and NEUROG2 control two waves of neuronal differentiation in the piriform cortex
  • enhances the neuronal differentiation of skin-derived precursors
  • APP-stimulated neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) is mediated by NEUROG2
  • proneural gene that directs neuronal differentiation of progenitor cells during development, and can enhance the generation of patient-specific induced neuronal cells
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • likely phosphorylated OLIG2 proteins form stable homodimers, whereas unphosphorylated OLIG2 prefers to form heterodimers with other bHLH proteins such as NEUROG2
  • INTERACTION
    DNA binding, requires dimerization with another bHLH protein
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • interactions with OLIG2, to modulate gene expression in motor neuron progenitor cells
  • targeting MYT1, NHLH1, EBF3, EBF2, HES6, CBFA2T2, NEUROD1, NEUROD4 (bind these enhancers to activate targets that execute core programs regulating neurogenesis)
  • NEUROD4 is a dorsally restricted NEUROG2 transcriptional target and cofactor, which synergizes with NEUROG2 to accelerate target gene transcription in the cortex
  • CBFA2T2 physically interacts with NEUROG2 and represses transcriptional activity of NEUROG2 (proper termination of NEUROG2 activity by CBFA2T2 is necessary for normal progression of neurogenesis in the developing spinal cord)
  • LMO4 functions as a novel co-factor of NEUROG2 in the developing cortex
  • interacting with PAX3 (PAX3 plays a role in regulating HES1 and NEUROG2 activity and thereby stem cell maintenance and neurogenesis)
  • NEUROG2 is a direct upstream activator of ZBTB18 expression
  • ZBTB18 represses NEUROG2 transcription to regulate the NEUROG2-RND2 pathway
  • DMRT3, induced NEUROG2 expression in the dorsal telencephalon
  • overexpression of DMRTA1 induced the expression of the proneural gene Neurogenin2 (NEUROG2) and conversely repressed ASCL1, a proneural gene expressed in the ventral telencephalon
  • NEUROG2, NEUROD1, and EBF3 inducing MTURN
  • critical role for CEND1 in NEUROG2-driven astrocytic reprogramming
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    inhibited by NEUROG2 and ASCL1 are inhibited by CBFA2T2 and CBFA2T3, and less efficiently by RUNX1T1
    Phosphorylated by phosphorylated on multiple serine-proline sites in response to rising cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) levels
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS