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FLASH GENE
Symbol MSRA contributors: mct/ - updated : 08-06-2011
HGNC name methionine sulfoxide reductase A
HGNC id 7377
Location 8p23.1      Physical location : 9.911.829 - 10.286.399
Synonym name
  • peptide met (O) reductase
  • cytosolic methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase
  • Synonym symbol(s) PMSR
    EC.number 1.8.4.11
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 374.57 kb     6 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    text structure
  • two promoters, the first regulates the msrA1 transcript and is highly active, the second regulates the msrA2/A3 transcripts and is less active
  • promoter 2 contains a 65bp putative enhancer region
  • both promoters are regulated by all-trans retinoic acid and via RARA and other RARs
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Physical map
    CLDN23 8p23.1 claudin 23 MFHAS1 8p23.1 malignant fibrous histiocytoma amplified sequence 1 MRPS18CP2 8p23.1 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18C pseudogene LOC392192 8 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L10 (QM protein homolog) RNU7P4 8p23.1 RNA, U7 small nuclear pseudogene 4 PPP1R3B 8p23.1 protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 3B TNKS 8p11 tankyrase, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase LOC389623 8 LOC389623 MSRA 8p23.1 methionine sulfoxide reductase A LOC346702 8p23.1 similar to tryptophan/serine protease RP1L1 8p23 retinitis pigmentosa 1-like 1 LOC203076 8p23.1 similar to 4930578I06Rik protein SOX7 8p22 SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 7 PINX1 8p23 SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 7 LOC389624 8 LOC389624 LOC286046 8p23.1 hypothetical protein LOC286046 C8orf5 8p22 chromosome 8 open reading frame 5 C8orf15 8p23.1 chromosome 8 open reading frame 15 C8orf6 8p23.1 chromosome 8 open reading frame 6 C8orf7 8p22 chromosome 8 open reading frame 7 LOC392193 8 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L19 LOC157740 8p23.1 hypothetical protein C8orf9 MTMR9 8p23-p22 myotubularin related protein 9 AMAC 8p22 acyl-malonyl condensing enzyme TDH 8p22 L-threonine dehydrogenase C8orf12 8p22 chromosome 8 open reading frame 12
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    text
  • transcriptional regulation of MSRA gene is complex and driven by two distinct promoters; and both promoters are partially regulated by all-trans retinoic acid via RARA and other RARs (PMID: 18845237)
  • identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    - - 1716 - 169 - 2009 18845237
    6 - 1492 26 235 mitochondrial form 2006 16364291
    isoform a
    5 - 1372 21.6 195 cytosolic/nuclear form 2009 18845237
    isoform b
    6 - 1641 21.4 192 cytosolic/nuclear form 2009 18845237
    isoform c
    EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Hearing/Equilibriumear   highly
    Nervousbrainhindbraincerebellum  
     brainlimbic systemhippocampus  
    Skin/Tegumentskin appendagesskin glandsweat gland   Homo sapiens
     skin appendageshair    Homo sapiens
    Urinarykidney   highly
    Visualeyeretina   
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow   
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Skin/Tegumenthair follicle cell Homo sapiens
    Visualcone photoreceptor
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to rattus Msra
    homolog to murine Msra
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • msrA Met sulfoxide reductase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
    intracellular,nucleus
    text
  • cytosolic form displays faster mobility than the mitochondrial form, suggesting a lower molecular weight for the former
  • basic FUNCTION
  • having an oxidoreductase activity, and reducing methionine S-sulfoxide
  • antioxidant repair enzyme that reduces oxidized methionine to methionine
  • might possess metastasis suppressor activity in hepatocellular carcinoma
  • may play an important role in protecting macular RPE from oxidative damage
  • capable of protecting cells against oxidative damage by reversing damage to proteins caused by methionine oxidation or by decreasing ROS through a scavenger mechanism
  • protects cardiac myocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation induced cell death
  • required for maintaining the reduced state of alpha-crystallin methionines in the lens
  • essential enzyme in the antioxidant system, which scavenges reactive oxygen species through cyclic oxidation and reduction of methionine and methionine sulfoxide
  • enzyme that reverses oxidation of methionine in proteins
  • required when cells are stressed may be related to the scavenger role of the MSR. system, and under stress conditions required to provide maximal protection
  • required for lens cell maintenance, defense against oxidative stress damage, mitochondrial function and prevention of lens cataract formation
  • uses multiple reducing systems for its repair activity that may augment its function under different cellular conditions
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, senescence
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism other
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • interacting with NXNL1 (critical role in MSRA repair of essential lens proteins under oxidative stress conditions and NXNL1 is important for MSRA defense protection against cataract)
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional       loss of function
    in cardiac myocytes reduces myocardial cell capability against stress stimulations resulting in a cellular dysfunction in the heart
    tumoral     --low  
    results in up-regulation of VEGF, providing additional support for tumor growth
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cardiovascularatheroma 
    important therapeutic target for ischemic heart disease
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • protein oxidation levels in MsrA-/- mouse hearts are significantly higher than those in wild type controls