Selected-GenAtlas references SOURCE GeneCards NCBI Gene Swiss-Prot Ensembl
HGNC UniGene Nucleotide OMIM UCSC
Home Page
Symbol MCL1 contributors: mct/shn - updated : 08-12-2017
HGNC name myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (BCL2-related)
HGNC id 6943
Location 1q21.3      Physical location : 150.547.036 - 150.552.136
Synonym name
  • multiple cutaneous leiomyomata and uterine fibroids
  • induced myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein Mcl-1
  • myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1, isoform 1
  • Bcl-2-related protein EAT/mcl1
  • myeloid cell leukemia ES
  • bcl-2-like protein 3
  • Synonym symbol(s) MCUL1, TM, EAT, MCL1L, MCL1S, MGC1839, BCL2L3, mcl1/EAT, Bcl2-L-3, BCL2L3, MGC104264, MCL-1
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 5.18 kb     3 Exon(s)
    Genomic sequence alignment details
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site   transcription factor
    text structure pomoter contains an array of putative and confirmed transcription
    factor binding sites, including consensus STAT response
    elements, cAMP response elements (CRE), and nuclear factor kappa
    B binding sites
    MAPPING cloned Y linked Y status confirmed
    Map cen - D1S2612 - D1S466 - MCL1 - D1S498 - D1S2347 - qter
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    3 splicing 4107 - 350 - - 20540941
  • enhancing cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis
  • isoform 1 or L
  • 2 splicing 3859 - 271 - - 20540941
  • lacks an alternate exon that causes a frameshift
  • isoform 2, or S, or delta TM
  • promotes apoptosis and is death-inducing
  • lacks BH domains 1, 2 and the transmembrane domain
  • 4 splicing 3648 - 197 mitochondria - 20540941
  • isoform ES or extra short
  • lacks a portion of exon 1, removing 53 AAs from
  • the PEST region, but retains all three BH domains and the C-terminal transmembrane domain
  • interacting with MCL1-L and inducing mitochondrial cell death
  • 2 splicing 813 - 271 placenta - 10837489
    splicing out of exon 2 during mRNA processing resulting to an altered C terminus leading leading to the loss of BH1, BH2, and the transmembrane domains
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Reproductivemale systemprostate   
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / Hematopoieticbone marrow   
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • large N-terminal domain containing many motifs that
  • affect its rate of turnover, localisation and phosphorylation status
  • one Bcl-2 homology 1 (BH1) domain
  • one Bcl-2 homology 2 (BH2) domain
  • one Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain
  • a PEST region rich in putative phosphorylation sites
  • conjugated ubiquitinated
    interspecies ortholog to Mcl1, Mus musculus
    ortholog to Mcl1, Rattus norvegicus
    ortholog to MCL1, Pan troglodytes
    intraspecies homolog to BCL2
  • an anti-apoptotic member of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins
  • CATEGORY regulatory
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    intracellular,nuclear envelope
  • localised to various cellular membranes, including
  • the mitochondria and nuclear envelope
    but it also has prominent cytosolic localisation
    basic FUNCTION
  • involved in programmed myeloid cell differentiation
  • involved in programing of differentiation and concomitant maintenance of viability but not of proliferation : isoform 1 inhibits apoptosis while isoform 2 promotes it
  • essential both early in lymphoid development and later on in the maintenance of mature lymphocytes (B and T)
  • essential for preimplantation development and implantation (
  • having an antiapoptotic role in various myeloid neoplasms
  • may control the fate of cells
  • essential modulator of survival during the development and maintenance of a variety of cell lineages
  • blocks the progression of apoptosis by binding and
  • sequestering the pro-apoptotic proteins BCL2 homologous
    antagonist killer (BAK) and BCL2-associated protein X (BAX) which are capable of forming pores in the mitochondrial membrane
  • MCL1 but not BCL2L1 to be indispensable for the formation and persistence of germinal centers (GCs), and B cell memory
  • main anti-apoptotic regulator of activated B cell survival
  • MCL1 and BCL2L1 function in the same apoptotic pathway
  • coordinately regulates apoptosis and autophagy, the outcome being determined by the interplay between BAX and Beclin-1 activation downstream of MCL1 degradation
  • coordinately regulates apoptosis and autophagy in a context-dependent manner
  • combination of BCL2L1 and MCL1 is essential for the viability of the megakaryocyte lineage
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell cycle, progression
    cell life, antiapoptosis
    a component
    small molecule
  • Bcl-2-related ovarian killer, Bok (
  • defender against cell death 1, DAD1 (
  • proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA (
  • Bcl-xl/Bcl-2-associated death promoter homolog, BAD
  • Fortilin (
  • Tankyrase 1, TANK1 (
  • BCL2-antagonist/killer, BAK (
  • Immediate early gene X-1, IEX-1 (
  • Mcl-1 ubiquitin ligase E3, Mule (
  • LASU1 (
  • coordinated action of MCL1, IER3, and BCL2L11 controls cell death and survival (new regulatory circuit)
  • Beclin-1 in the mitochondria
  • BAX BH3 domain complexing with the pro-survival proteins MCL1 and BCL2L1
  • PMAIP1 is strongly upregulated and became associated with both MCL1 and BCL2L11 during apoptosis induced by proteasome inhibition
  • SCF(FBW7) (
  • ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, X-linked, USP9X
  • PMAIP1 is involved in the modulation of MCL1 expression
  • PMAIP1 favors the interaction between MCL1 and HUWE1 and consequently affects MCL1 ubiquitination
  • ATG12 directly regulates the apoptotic pathway by binding and inactivating prosurvival BCL2 family members, including BCL2 and MCL1
  • NAA10 positively regulated MCL1 expression, as exogenous NAA10 promoted MCL1 expression, whereas NAA10 silencing decreased MCL1 expression
  • NAA10 inhibits apoptosis through NAA10-RELA-dependent MCL1 transcriptional activation
  • antagonism between MCL1 and BBC3 governs stem/progenitor cell survival during hematopoietic recovery from stress
  • EXOC4 is involved in the regulation of both BCL2 and MCL1 at the mRNA level
  • EXOC3 regulated BCL2 at the mRNA level and the binding affinity of F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 and MCL1, thereby controlling MCL1 at the protein level
  • ASAH1 plays a critical role in AML survival through regulation of both sphingolipid levels and MCL1
  • mitochondrial fission proteins DNM1L and MFF negatively regulate MARCH5 activity toward MIEF2 and MCL1
  • macrophages confer survival signals via CCR1-dependent translational MCL1 induction in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • BCL2 proteins directly promote SUFU turnover, inhibit SUFU-GLI interaction, and induce the expression of the GLI target genes BCL2, MCL1 and BCL2L1
  • MCL1 is an upstream stress-sensitive protein, functional in AMBRA1-mediated mitophagy
  • MCL1 stability is regulated by the kinase GSK3B and the E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 in regulating AMBRA1-mediated mitophagy
  • cell & other
    Other MCL1 degradation can occur independently of ubiquitinylation
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in NPM-ALK positive anaplastic large cells lymphoma
    tumoral     --over  
    in rhabdomyosarcoma
    tumoral     --over  
    in severalhaematological cancers and solid tumours, including chronic myeloid leukemia and hepatocellular carcinoma
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    attractive target and survival factor in neoplastic mast cells in systemic mastocytosis
    attractive and potential therapeutic target in a number of malignancies
    potential target in germinal center-derived lymphomas that do not overexpress BCL2L1
  • Deletion of Mcl-1 resulted in peri-implantation embryonic lethality in mouse (
  • mice conditional for Mcl-1 display a profound reduction in B and T lymphocytes when MCL-1 is removed, deletion of Mcl-1 during early lymphocyte differentiation increased apoptosis and arrested the development at pro-B-cell and double-negative T-cell stages (
  • deletion of Mcl-1 in cortical neurons of transgenic mice activates a robust autophagic response