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FLASH GENE
Symbol LY96 contributors: mct - updated : 18-02-2016
HGNC name lymphocyte antigen 96
HGNC id 17156
Location 8q21.11      Physical location : 74.903.586 - 74.941.305
Synonym name
  • MD-2 protein
  • myeloid differentiation protein-2
  • Synonym symbol(s) MD-2, ESOP-1, MD2, ly-96
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 41.23 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Physical map
    SLCO5A1 8q13.2 solute carrier family 21 (organic anion transporter), member 15 LOC392230 8 similar to BAG-family molecular chaperone regulator-4 (Silencer of death domains) PRDM14 8p21-p12 PR domain containing 14 LOC346990 8q13.2 similar to H2A histone family, member Z NCOA2 8q13.1 nuclear receptor coactivator 2 LOC392231 8 similar to basic transcription factor 3 TRAM1 8q13.1 translocation associated membrane protein 1 CGI-83 LOC389668 8 similar to hypothetical protein FLJ10307 EYA1 8q13.3 eyes absent homolog 1 (Drosophila) MSC 8q21.1-q21.2 musculin (activated B-cell factor-1) TRPA1 8q13 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 LOC392232 8 similar to ankyrin-like protein 1; ankyrin-like with transmembrane domains 1 KCNB2 8q13.2 potassium voltage-gated channel, Shab-related subfamily, member 2 TERF1 8q13 telomeric repeat binding factor (NIMA-interacting) 1 RPESP 8q13.3 RPE-spondin LOC392233 8 similar to Hspcb protein LOC389669 8 LOC389669 RPL7 8q12-q22 ribosomal protein L7 RDH10 8q13.3 retinol dehydrogenase 10 (all-trans) STAU2 8q13-q21.1 staufen, RNA binding protein, homolog 2 (Drosophila) FLJ11011 8q13.3 hypothetical protein FLJ11011 TCEB1 8q13-q21 transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 (15kDa, elongin C) FLJ20533 8q13.3 hypothetical protein FLJ20533 LOC157793 8q13.3 similar to destrin - pig LY96 8q13.3 lymphocyte antigen 96 JPH1 8q21 junctophilin 1 GDAP1 8q13.3-q21 ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 LOC286157 8q13.3 similar to mCBP PI15 8q13.3 protease inhibitor 15 LOC83690 8q13.3 CocoaCrisp LOC389670 8 hypothetical gene supported by BC062758 LOC392234 8 similar to Pyruvate kinase, M2 isozyme HNF4G 8q21.3-q22.1 hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, gamma MRPL9P1 8q21.11 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L9 pseudogene ZFH4 8q13.3 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L9 pseudogene PXMP3 8q21.1 peroxisomal membrane protein 3, 35kDa (Zellweger syndrome)
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    5 - 642 - 160 - 2015 25576596
    4 splicing 552 - 130 - 2015 25576596
  • short isoform, (MD-2s)
  • could be a potential therapeutic candidate to treat human diseases induced or exacerbated by TLR4 signaling, such as Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin-induced lung injury and house dust mite (HDM)-triggered allergic lung inflammation
  • EXPRESSION
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Endocrineadrenal gland    
    Lymphoid/Immunelymph node    
     thymus    
    Respiratoryrespiratory tractlarynx   
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / Hematopoieticbone marrow   
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticmonocyte
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a signal peptide
  • two N terminal glycosylation
  • a unique hydrophobic cavity that directly binds to lipid A, the active center of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
  • conjugated GlycoP
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to murine Ly96
    Homologene
    FAMILY
    CATEGORY adaptor , antigen
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,membrane
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endosome
    text trafficking to and from the cell surface and the Golgi apparatus
    basic FUNCTION
  • conferring liposaccharides (LPS) responsiveness to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)
  • prominent role of LY96 in intestinal immune responses to Gram-negative bacteria
  • possesses potential ability to play an essential role in cell surface expression of TLR4
  • is essential for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recognition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not for cell surface expression
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS immunity/defense , inflammation
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
    required for LPS signaling of TLR4
    a component
  • component of a complex with TLR4 and CD14
  • leucine at position 815 is required for the normal maturation of TLR4 and for formation of the TLR4.LY96 complex
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • associating with the extracellular domain of TLR4
  • TLR4 requires myeloid differentiation (LY96), and both TLR2 and TLR4 signal need myeloid differentiation factor (MYD88)
  • binds LPS with high affinity and is critical for TLR4-dependent signal transduction
  • TLR4 adaptor, myeloid differentiation factor 2 (LY96), binds specifically to the cytokine-inducing disulfide isoform of HMGB1, to the exclusion of other isoforms
  • TLR4 mediates host responses to pathogens through a mechanism that involves protein myeloid differentiation-2 (LY96) and its soluble form sLY96
  • cell & other lipopolysaccharides
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
    mice MD-2(-/-) do not response to LPS,but survive to endotoxin shock