Selected-GenAtlas references SOURCE GeneCards NCBI Gene Swiss-Prot Ensembl
HGNC UniGene Nucleotide OMIM UCSC
Home Page
FLASH GENE
Symbol LPCAT1 contributors: mct - updated : 08-03-2017
HGNC name lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1
HGNC id 25718
Location 5p15.33      Physical location : 1.461.543 - 1.524.076
Synonym name
  • AYTL2 protein
  • lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) acyltransferase
  • acyltransferase like 2
  • phosphonoformate immuno-associated protein 3
  • lung- type acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1
  • PAF synthase
  • Synonym symbol(s) FLJ12443, PFAAP3, AYTL2, lpcat, AGPAT10, AGPAT9, AYTL2, LPCAT-1, lysoPAFAT
    EC.number 2.3.1.23, 2.3.1.67
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 67.69 kb     14 Exon(s)
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    14 - 3994 59.2 534 - 2006 16704971
    EXPRESSION
    Rna function
  • mRNA is highly expressed in the lung
  • RNA in all tissues examined (heart, brain, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas) with maximum expression in placenta and lung
  • Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestivesalivary gland   highly
    Reproductivemale systemprostate  highly Homo sapiens
    Respiratorylung   predominantly Homo sapiens
     respiratory tractlarynx  highly
    Visualeyeretina    Homo sapiens
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectivebone  highly
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticerythrocyte Homo sapiens
    Respiratoryalveolar cell type 2
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a transmembrane domain
  • a domain for glycerolipid acyltransferase activity
  • a conserved cysteine (Cys(211) that is crucial for the catalysis
  • two EF-hand domains for potential calcium binding sites at the C terminus
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine and rat LPCAT
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,membrane
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endoplasmic reticulum
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,Golgi
    intracellular,nucleus
    text
  • nuclear LPCAT1 colocalizes with and binds to histone H4, where it catalyzes histone H4 palmitoylation
  • LPCAT1 and LPCAT2 can localize to the lipid droplets (LDs)surface
  • basic FUNCTION
  • might synthesize phosphatidylcholine in pulmonary surfactant and play a pivotal role in respiratory physiology
  • plays a critical role in regulating surfactant phospholipid biosynthesis
  • may be catalyzing the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in alveolar type II cells
  • plays a role in the noninflammatory response to oxidization and inflammation
  • converts lysophosphatidylcholine into phosphatidylcholine
  • phosphatidylcholine reacylating enzyme in red blood cells
  • may contribute to total choline metabolite accumulation via phosphatidylcholine remodeling, thereby altering the colorectal carcinoma lipid profile, a characteristic of malignancy
  • possesses lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) and lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase (LPGAT) activities
  • may have evolved along with the lung to facilitate respiration and is the biosynthetic enzyme of pulmonary surfactant phospholipids
  • required for pulmonary surfactant homeostasis, and to achieve the levels of saturated phosphatidylcholine essential for the transition to air breathing
  • importance of LPCAT1 in diverse cellular processes, with an as yet undefined new role in photoreceptor biology
  • LPCAT1 and LPCAT2 have, in addition to their known function in specialized cells, a ubiquitous role in lipid droplets (LDs)-associated lipid metabolism
  • is a critical cytosolic enzyme needed for lung surfactant synthesis that catalyzes an acyltransferase reaction by adding a palmitate to the sn-2 position of lysophospholipids
  • modulation of the lipid droplets (LDs) pool by LPCAT1 influences the release of lipoprotein from liver cells
  • is required in the biosynthesis of pulmonary surfactant
  • is necessary for photoreceptors to generate an important lipid component of their membranes
  • is a key enzyme in the synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF), as well as DPPC, a highly surface-active glycerophospholipid component of surfactant
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS respiration
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • phosphatidylcholine formation by LPCAT1 is regulated by Ca(2+) and the redox status of the cell
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, indicating the importance of some cysteine residue(s) for the catalysis
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in colorectal adenocarcinomas
    constitutional     --low  
    results in early and rapid rod and cone degeneration
    Susceptibility to sudden cardiac arrest (SCA)
    Variant & Polymorphism other
  • a common genetic variant near LPCAT1, a gene involved in the remodeling of phospholipids, was nominally associated with incident SCA risk
  • Candidate gene
    Marker
  • could be a new biomarker in diagnosis, prognosis and studying the pathogenesis of prostate cancer
  • Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • photoreceptor degeneration and loss of ERG signal was observed in rd11 and B6-JR2845 mice
  • rd11 mice carry a mutation in the Lpcat1 gene, and are an excellent model of early-onset rapid retinal degeneration (RD) (