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FLASH GENE
Symbol LOXL4 contributors: mct/npt - updated : 19-05-2009
HGNC name lysyl oxidase-like 4
HGNC id 17171
Location 10q24.2      Physical location : 100.007.442 - 100.028.007
Synonym name lysyl oxidase-related protein C
Synonym symbol(s) LOXC, FLJ21889
EC.number 1.4.3.-
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 20.56 kb     15 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Promoter
Binding site
text structure
  • promoter region spanning positions -960 to -1 identified binding sites for several transcription factors (TATA and SP1) (these transcription factors are involved in the upregulation of LOXL4 gene expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells) (Görögh 2008)
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Physical map
    ARHGAP19 10q24.2 Rho GTPase activating protein 19 FRAT1 10q24.1 frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas FRAT2 10q23-q24.1 frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 2 KIAA0690 10q23.33 frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 2 PGAM1 10q25.3 phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (brain) CSL4 10q24 exosomal core protein CSL4 ZDHHC16 10q24.1 zinc finger, DHHC domain containing 16 MMS19L 10q24-q25 MMS19-like (MET18 homolog, S. cerevisiae) FLJ11807 10q24.2 hypothetical protein FLJ11807 ANKRD2 10q23.31-q23.32 ankyrin repeat domain 2 (stretch responsive muscle) LOC112817 10q24.2 hypothetical protein BC011916 LOC118812 10q24.2 44050 protein PI4KII 10q24 44050 protein VIP32 10q24.2 vasopressin-induced transcript MGC4415 10q24.2 hypothetical protein MGC4415 FLJ32919 10q24.2 hypothetical protein FLJ32919 SFRP5 10q24.1 secreted frizzled-related protein 5 CRTAC1 10q22 cartilage acidic protein 1 C10orf28 10q24.2 chromosome 10 open reading frame 28 LOXL4 10q24 lysyl oxidase-like 4 C10orf33 10q24.2 chromosome 10 open reading frame 33 HPS1 10q23.1-q23.3 Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 1 HPSE2 10q23-q24 heparanase 2
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    15 - 3657 81.8 756 - Sebban (2009)
    14 splicing - - - in ovarian carcinoma, significantly elevated in effusions compared to solid lesions Sebban (2009)
  • spliced segments were exon 9
  • 13 splicing - - - only in effusions Sebban (2009)
  • spliced segments were both exons 8 and 9
  • EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Endocrinepancreas   predominantly
    Reproductivemale systemtestis  predominantly
    Respiratorylung   highly
    Skin/Tegumentskin   highly
    Urinarykidney    
    Visualeye   highly
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectivecartilage   
    Epithelialsecretoryglandularendocrine 
    Epithelialsecretoryglandularexocrine 
    Muscularstriatumskeletal  
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
     chondrocyte
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • the C- terminal region contains a lysyl oxidase (LO) domain
  • a copper binding site
  • four histidyl residues
  • the N- terminal region has four subregions similar to scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains
  • a cytokine receptor-like domain
  • the residues of the lysyl-tyrosyl quinone cofactor (Kim 2003)
  • conjugated GlycoP , MetalloP
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Loxl4
    homolog to Drosophila lk6
    homolog to C.elegans R166.5
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • lysyl oxidase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme , regulatory
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • modulating the formation of a collagenous extracellular matrix
  • function as copper-dependent amine oxidases catalyzing lysine-derived cross-links in extracellular matrix proteins (Kim 2003)
  • can act as tumor suppressor genes and exert their functions through the inhibition of the Ras/ERK signaling pathway in bladder cancer (Wu 2007)
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule metal binding, cofactor,
  • copper Cu2+
  • lysine tyrosylquinone (LTQ) (by similarity)
  • protein
    cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (Görögh 2008)
    tumoral     --low  
    commonly silenced genes in human bladder cancer cells, and this silence is predominantly related to promoter methylation (Wu 2007)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS