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FLASH GENE
Symbol LOXL4 contributors: mct/npt - updated : 19-05-2009
HGNC name lysyl oxidase-like 4
HGNC id 17171
Location 10q24.2      Physical location : 100.007.442 - 100.028.007
Synonym name lysyl oxidase-related protein C
Synonym symbol(s) LOXC, FLJ21889
EC.number 1.4.3.-
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 20.56 kb     15 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Promoter
Binding site
text structure
  • promoter region spanning positions -960 to -1 identified binding sites for several transcription factors (TATA and SP1) (these transcription factors are involved in the upregulation of LOXL4 gene expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells) (Görögh 2008)
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    15 - 3657 81.8 756 - Sebban (2009)
    14 splicing - - - in ovarian carcinoma, significantly elevated in effusions compared to solid lesions Sebban (2009)
  • spliced segments were exon 9
  • 13 splicing - - - only in effusions Sebban (2009)
  • spliced segments were both exons 8 and 9
  • EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Endocrinepancreas   predominantly
    Reproductivemale systemtestis  predominantly
    Respiratorylung   highly
    Skin/Tegumentskin   highly
    Urinarykidney    
    Visualeye   highly
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectivecartilage   
    Epithelialsecretoryglandularendocrine 
    Epithelialsecretoryglandularexocrine 
    Muscularstriatumskeletal  
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
     chondrocyte
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • the C- terminal region contains a lysyl oxidase (LO) domain
  • a copper binding site
  • four histidyl residues
  • the N- terminal region has four subregions similar to scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains
  • a cytokine receptor-like domain
  • the residues of the lysyl-tyrosyl quinone cofactor (Kim 2003)
  • conjugated GlycoP , MetalloP
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Loxl4
    homolog to Drosophila lk6
    homolog to C.elegans R166.5
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • lysyl oxidase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme , regulatory
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • modulating the formation of a collagenous extracellular matrix
  • function as copper-dependent amine oxidases catalyzing lysine-derived cross-links in extracellular matrix proteins (Kim 2003)
  • can act as tumor suppressor genes and exert their functions through the inhibition of the Ras/ERK signaling pathway in bladder cancer (Wu 2007)
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule metal binding, cofactor,
  • copper Cu2+
  • lysine tyrosylquinone (LTQ) (by similarity)
  • protein
    cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (Görögh 2008)
    tumoral     --low  
    commonly silenced genes in human bladder cancer cells, and this silence is predominantly related to promoter methylation (Wu 2007)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS