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Symbol LOX contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 27-04-2015
HGNC name lysyl oxidase
HGNC id 6664
Location 5q23.1      Physical location : 121.398.889 - 121.414.055
Synonym name protein-lysine 6-oxidase
Synonym symbol(s) HREV142, RRG1, MGC105112
TYPE breakpoint
STRUCTURE 15.16 kb     7 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Binding site
text structure five possible binding sequences for Sp1, six for AP-2, one for AP-1, three for PEA3, three for MEP-1
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
Physical map
FLJ33977 5q23.1 hypothetical protein FLJ33977 PTMAP2 5 prothymosin, alpha pseudogene 2 (gene sequence 32) LOC391822 5 similar to chromosome 20 open reading frame 147 DMXL1 5q22 Dmx-like 1 GG2-1 LOC389318 5 LOC389318 HSD17B4 5q2 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4 LOC391823 5 similar to 60S RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN L21 LOC340069 5q23.2 hypothetical protein LOC340069 LOC391824 5 similar to tubulin, alpha 6; tubulin alpha 6 LOC348958 5q23.2 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L10 pseudogene LOC51334 5q23.2 mesenchymal stem cell protein DSC54 LOC391825 5 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L23a LOC256233 5q23.2 similar to ribosomal protein L18; 60S ribosomal protein L18 MTF  mitochondrial ferritin FLJ25286 5q23.2 hypothetical protein FLJ25286 LOX 5q23.3-q31.2 lysyl oxidase LOC133923 5q23.2 similar to RIKEN cDNA 4933409D10 LOC153441 5q23.2 similar to RIKEN cDNA 4933409D10 SNCAIP 5q23.1-q23.3 synuclein, alpha interacting protein (synphilin) SNX2 5q23 sorting nexin 2 SNX24 5q23.2 sorting nexing 24 PPIC 5q23.2 peptidylprolyl isomerase C (cyclophilin C) PRDM6 5q21-q23 PR domain containing 6 LOC391826 5 similar to Ubiquitin-like protein SMT3C precursor (Ubiquitin-homology domain protein PIC1) (Ubiquitin-like protein UBL1) (Ubiquitin-related protein SUMO-1) (GAP modifying protein 1) (GMP1) (Sentrin) FLJ36090 5q23.2 hypothetical protein FLJ36090 CSNK1G3 5q23 casein kinase 1, gamma 3 LOC391827 5 similar to Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 18 (Cytokeratin 18) (K18) (CK 18) KIAA1281 5q23.2 KIAA1281 protein LOC391828 5 similar to ribosomal protein L28 LOC391829 5 similar to High mobility group protein 1-like 10 (HMG-1L10) LOC389319 5 LOC389319 NS3TP2 5q23.3 HCV NS3-transactivated protein 2 ALDH7A1 5q31 aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family, member A1 PHAX 5q23.3 likely ortholog of mouse phosphorylated adaptor for RNA export LOC133609 5q23.3 similar to 60S acidic ribosomal protein P1 LOC389320 5 hypothetical gene supported by AK131015 LOC285008 5q23.3 hypothetical gene supported by BC028282; BC028282; BC028282 LMNB1 5q23.3-q31.1 lamin B1
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
text four minor transcripts
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
6 splicing 4393 21.6 187 - 2014 25017124
  • LOXv2
  • lacks exon 1 of LOX, but contains an additional 222 bp sequence from the 5prime-flanking intronic region of exon 2
  • function as amine oxidases with distinct tissue specificities
  • - splicing - 18 162 - 2010 20048148
  • lysyl oxidase propeptide
  • inhibit serum- and FGF2-stimulated DNA synthesis and FGF2-stimulated cell growth
  • may act to inhibit the proliferative response possibly to allow cells to exit from the cell cycle and progress to the next stages of osteoblasts differentiation
  • may provide a feedback control mechanism that serves to inhibit properties associated with the development of vascular pathology
  • direct interaction of LOX-PP with SH3KBP1, interaction reducing the invasive phenotype of breast cancer cells (PMID: 24167568)
  • 7 splicing 5177 46.9 417 - 2014 25017124
  • LOX
  • function as amine oxidases with distinct tissue specificities
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularvessel   highly Homo sapiens
    Skin/Tegumentskin   highly
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectivebone  highly
    Muscularsmoothvessel highly Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
    physiological period pregnancy
    Text placenta
  • a signal peptide 21AA
  • an active site at the C terminus including a Cu2+ binding site
  • four hystidyl residues
  • a copper-binding region
  • catalytic domain interacting with the transcription repressor GATAD2B
  • conjugated GlycoP , MetalloP
    isoforms Precursor Pro-LOX is secreted as a 50 kDa proenzyme
    interspecies homolog to murine Ras recision gene
    homolog to murine Lox (87.3pc)
  • lysyl oxidase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    text extracellular matrix
    basic FUNCTION
  • lysyl oxidase, copper dependent, processed by BMP1 to the mature enzyme necessary for the formation of covalent cross-links in collagen and elastic fibers
  • playing a potential tumor suppressor role but also involved in tumor progression
  • essential for hypoxia-induced metastasis and is a good therapeutic target for preventing and treating metastases
  • key enzyme in extracellular matrix maturation
  • seems to be involved in the impairment of endothelial function triggered by different pathological conditions
  • essential for hypoxia-induced metastasis
  • its enzyme activity is critical for the biosynthesis of mature and functional collagens and elastin
  • can associate with extracellular and intracellular binding partners to affect its known biological activities as a tumor suppressor and inhibitor of cell proliferation
  • implicated in chromatin decondensation, decondensation suggested to be promoted by LOX actions on histone H1
  • essential mediator of STK11-deficiency-elicited lung cancer progression through ECM alteration, especially collagen matrix remodeling
  • may alter cancer cell growth potential via ECM remodeling
  • lysosome may regulate the dendrite development of Purkinje cells though degradation of LOX
  • multifunctional enzyme required for collagen biosynthesis
  • plays a critical role in vascular remodelling
  • critical intracellular role for LOX and LOXL2 in transcriptional regulation
  • enzyme responsible for the formation of collagen cross-links
  • PLOD1 and lysyl oxidase (LOX), contribute to ECM maturation and stabilization
  • LOX and PLOD1 are critical players in vascular calcification, and important role of ECM remodeling in this process
    a component
    small molecule metal binding, cofactor,
  • copper Cu2+
  • protein
  • interacts with EFEMP2 (importance of the ternary complex of EFEMP2, LOX, and tropoelastin in the process of elastic fiber assembly)
  • POSTN promotes the activation of LOX
  • activates AKT1 through platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) stimulation, resulting in increased VEGFA expression
  • activity participates in primary tumor growth by directly impacting the senescence stability
  • play a causal role in vascular remodeling in clinical and experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension
  • ECM cross-linking enzyme expressed in the trabecular meshwork and regulated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) isoforms
  • LOX propeptide promotes adipogenesis through inhibition of FGF2 signaling
  • cell & other
    inhibited by TNF (endothelial dysfunction induced by TNF is associated with a decrease of LOX expression/activity)
    Other regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)
    GATAD2B might be important for the regulation of LOX in the nucleus
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --low  
    low expressed by hypermethylation in gastric cancer
    tumoral     --over  
    elevated in hypoxic tumour cells (breast, head and neck tumors)
    constitutional     --other  
    dysregulated in pulmonary arterial hypertension
    constitutional     --low  
    in keratoconus and in keratoconus-associated disorders
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
  • promising biomarker for lung cancer prognosis (
  • may be a tumour endothelial cells (TECs) marker
  • Therapy target good therapeutic target for preventing and treating metastases
    potential target for disease treatment in lung cancer patients
    possible therapeutic target for novel antiangiogenic therapy