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Symbol ING2 contributors: mct - updated : 11-04-2018
HGNC name inhibitor of growth family, member 2
HGNC id 6063
Location 4q35.1      Physical location : 184.426.219 - 184.432.249
Synonym name
  • inhibitor of growth family, member 1-like
  • inhibitor of growth protein 2
  • Synonym symbol(s) P33ING2, ING1L, ING1Lp, p32
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 6.03 kb     2 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site
    text structure promoter has two TP53 binding sites through which TP53 down-regulates expression of ING2
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    2 - 1135 32 280 testis, muscle, pancreas, ovary, fetal brain 2008 18951897
    also called ING2a
    2 - 783 28 240 testis 2008 18951897
  • also called ING2b
  • shares exon 2 with ING2a, but lacks the N-terminal TP53 binding region
  • exon 1b
  • a HSF1 and HSF2 binding site, a C-Rel binding site, a SP1 binding site, five MZF1 binding sites, and a p300 binding site were predicted in the promoter region
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Hearing/Equilibriumearinnercochlea highly
    Lymphoid/Immunelymph node   moderately
    Reproductivefemale systemuterus  moderately
     female systemovary  lowly
     male systemprostate  highly
    Respiratoryrespiratory tractlarynx  moderately
    cell lineage
    cell lines colon tumor cell lines
    at STAGE
  • a N-terminal leucine zipper-like motif, and an intact coiled-coil domain, involved in TP53 binding
  • a central NLS sequence
  • two nucleolar-targeting sequences, a RRQR motif and a KKKK motif in their first and third NLS, respectively
  • a polybasic region (PBR) adjacent to the PHDs that binds stress-inducible phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PtIn-MP) signaling lipids to activate ING2
  • a PHD (CH4-H-C3) zinc finger motif at the C terminus, required for SMURF1-mediated degradation
  • mono polymer complex
    interspecies homolog to rattus Ing1 (96.77 pc)
    homolog to murine Ing2 (96.79 pc)
    intraspecies homolog to ING1
  • inhibitor of growth (ING) protein family
  • CATEGORY regulatory , DNA associated , signaling
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
  • upon reduced PtdIns(5)P levels seems to be released from chromatin and, at least partially, translocated to the cytoplasm
  • sumoylation of ING2 is not required for the targeting of ING2 to the nucleus or to the chromatin
  • basic FUNCTION
  • inhibitor of cell growth (through the induction of G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis)
  • enhancing the transcriptional transactivation activity of TP53
  • can act as a cofactor of p300 for p53 acetylation and thereby plays a positive regulatory role during p53-mediated replicative senescence
  • upregulating Fas expression and activating caspase 8
  • modulating cellular responses to genotoxic insults
  • promoting TGF-beta-induced transcription
  • mediating responses by the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-Smad signaling pathway
  • have compensatory roles that protect cells from cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and may be involved in development of chemotherapeutic resistance
  • seems to have crucial roles in transcriptional regulation of various genes
  • might function as a tumor suppressor gene by directly maintaining DNA integrity
  • regulate cell growth, apoptosis, DNA repair, chromatin remodeling and gene expression through association with various proteins including SIN3A–HDAC complex, EP300
  • its sumoylation is required for the presence of both ING2 and SIN3A on its promoter to allow its expression (mechanism of ING2 regulation by a post-translational modification)
  • acts as a cell proliferation inhibitor by regulating cell cycle progression, apoptosis and senescence
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    cell life, cell death/apoptosis
    nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    a component
  • component of a SIN3A histone deacetylase complex
  • forming a complex with SKIL and SMAD2
  • ING1 and ING2 are stoichiometric members of histone deacetylase complexes
    DNA binding
    small molecule metal binding,
  • Zn2+
  • protein
  • H3K4me3
  • interacting with SKIL
  • interacting with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and regulating its amount to the chromatin fraction
  • able to activate TP53 and cooperates with TP53 to induce cellular growth arrest and apoptosis
  • can bind to the promoter of genes to mediate their expression and that sumoylation of ING2 is required for this binding to some of these genes
  • interacting with TMEM71 (must be sumoylated to bind to the promoter of TMEM71 and to recruit the SIN3A chromatin-modifying complex to this promoter, in order to regulate TMEM71 transcription)
  • ING2 interacts with AR and hampers the AR transcriptional activation, causes growth arrest, and induces cellular senescence
  • potential crosstalk between ING1 and ING2 tumor suppressors to inhibit AR signaling and induce cellular senescence in PCa cells
  • cell & other
    induced by the DNA-damaging agents etoposide and neocarzinostatin
    Other modulated by binding to phosphoinositides
    stability of ING2 could be regulated by ubiquitin-mediated degradation
    ING2 sumoylation enhances its association with SIN3A
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral   LOH    
    loss of heterozygozity in basal cell carcinoma (BCC)
    tumoral     --low  
    in melanomas and reduced ING2 may be an important molecular event in the initiation of melanoma development
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target possibility of ING2 siRNA as a new generation of cancer therapeutic agent