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FLASH GENE
Symbol IL15 contributors: mct/pgu - updated : 09-04-2013
HGNC name interleukin 15
HGNC id 5977
Location 4q31.21      Physical location : 142.557.753 - 142.654.611
Synonym symbol(s) IL-15, MGC9721
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 96.86 kb     8 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
Physical map
SLC7A11 4q28-q32 solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11 LOC152594 4q28.3 similar to ART-4 protein CCRN4L 4q28.3 CCR4 carbon catabolite repression 4-like (S. cerevisiae) ELF2 4q28 E74-like factor 2 (ets domain transcription factor) LOC389224 4 hypothetical gene supported by AK097799 OSAP 4q31.1 ovary-specific acidic protein NDUFC1 4q28.2-q28.3 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1, subcomplex unknown, 1, 6kDa TBDN100 4q31.1 transcriptional coactivator tubedown-100 RAB33B 4q28 RAB33B, member RAS oncogene family SET7 4q28 SET domain-containing protein 7 MGST2 4q28-q31 microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2 MAML3 4q28 mastermind-like 3 (Drosophila) SCOC 4q28.3 short coiled-coil protein LOC391702 4 similar to ribosomal protein L14; 60S ribosomal protein L14 CLGN 4q28.3-q31.1 calmegin LOC152586 4q31.1 similar to RIKEN cDNA 4933434I20 MGC10084 4q31.1 hypothetical protein MGC10084 UCP1 4q28-q31 uncoupling protein 1 (mitochondrial, proton carrier) KIAA0882 4q31.1 KIAA0882 protein LOC389225 4 LOC389225 LOC389226 4 similar to ring finger protein 130; g1-related zinc finger protein RNF150 4q31.1 ring finger protein 150 LOC389227 4 LOC389227 ZNF330 4q31.1-q31.2 LOC389227 LOC389228 4 similar to GRIK2 protein IL15 4q31 interleukin 15 INPP4B 4q31.11 inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II, 105kDa USP38 4q31.1 ubiquitin specific protease 38 GAB1 4q31.4-q13.5 GRB2-associated binding protein 1 SMARCA5 4q31.1-q31.2 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5 LOC389229 4 similar to Beta-glucuronidase precursor (Beta-G1) LOC166752 4q31.1 similar to embryonic blastocoelar extracellular matrix protein precursor GYPE 4q31 glycophorin E LOC152891 4q31.1 similar to WW45 protein GYPB 4q28-q31 glycophorin B (includes Ss blood group) GYPA 4q28.2-31.1 glycophorin A (includes MN blood group) LOC391703 4 similar to Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 18 (Cytokeratin 18) (K18) (CK 18) HHIP 4q28-q32 hedgehog interacting protein LOC345041 4q31.21 similar to 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial precursor (Hsp60) (60 kDa chaperonin) (CPN60) (Heat shock protein 60) (HSP-60) (Mitochondrial matrix protein P1) (P60 lymphocyte protein) (HuCHA60) APC10 4q31 similar to 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial precursor (Hsp60) (60 kDa chaperonin) (CPN60) (Heat shock protein 60) (HSP-60) (Mitochondrial matrix protein P1) (P60 lymphocyte protein) (HuCHA60) ABCE1 4q31 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family E (OABP), member 1 HSHIN1 4q31.21 HIV-1 induced protein HIN-1
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
8 - 1962 - 162 - 1996 8932977
8 - 1496 - 162 - 1996 8932977
EXPRESSION
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Digestivestomach    
Endocrinethyroid    
Nervousbrain     Homo sapiensAdult
Respiratoryrespiratory tractlarynx   
Urinarykidneytubuleconvoluted tubuleproximal tubule  Homo sapiensAdult
tissue
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Connectiveadipose   
Nervouscentral    Homo sapiensAdult
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
HOMOLOGY
intraspecies homolog to IL2,structurally and functionally
Homologene
FAMILY
  • gamma chain family of cytokines
  • IL-15/IL-21 family
  • CATEGORY signaling cytokine
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,membrane
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,Golgi
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endosome
    intracellular,nucleus
    basic FUNCTION
  • involved in the differentiation of natural killer cells
  • inducing the differentiation of functional dendritic cells from peripheral blood monocytes
  • regulate the homeostasis of both innate and adaptive immune cells and lymphoid homeostasis
  • cytokine important for the development, maturation, and function of many cells of the immune system including NK, NKT, gammadeltaT, and CD8(+) T cells
  • its expression affects homeostasis and function of B cells through NK cell-derived IFNG
  • TNF significantly increased IL15-driven NK cell differentiation by increasing the expression of transcription factors that play crucial roles in NK cell maturation and inducing the NF-kappaB activity
  • intracellular IL15 is a potential key regulator of pathways controlling primary mast cell homeostasis
  • plays a crucial role in the development of follicular dendritic cells networks during germinal center reaction, offering a new target for immune modulation
  • supports the survival of effector CD8+ T cells after pathogen clearance, but its absence does not impair either primary or secondary effector CTL differentiation, nor does it impact the differentiation of long-term effector memory CD8+ T cells
  • activates multiple endothelial signaling events
  • key regulator of neurogenesis in the adult and is essential to understanding diseases with an inflammatory component
  • can induce the proliferation of Tregs in the presence of dendritics cells
  • critical role for IL15 in NKT cell survival, which is mediated by BCL2L1, and effector differentiation, which is consistent with a role of T-bet in regulating terminal maturation
  • IL15 signaling in NK cells is different from that of myeloid immune cells
  • has a negative regulatory role in fine-tuning of IL17A production and Th17-mediated inflammation
  • IL7- and IL15-mediated TCR sensitization enables T cell responses to self-antigens
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • IL15 is produced potentially and secreted only as a heterodimer with IL15RA
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • IL15 may influence neural cell differentiation through a signal transduction pathway involving IL15RA and STAT3
  • NFKB1 is a major signal transducer by which IL15 affects cellular permeability, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking at the level of the blood-brain barrier
  • CDH1 modulation by soluble IL15 controls epithelial-mesenchymal transition on renal epithelial cells
  • IL15 can signal via IL15RA, JNK, and NFKB1 to drive CCL5 production by myeloid cells
  • PDKP1, a kinase upstream of MTOR, connects IL15 signaling to NFIL3
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in human large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia
    constitutional     --over  
    has a central role in the development of several autoimmune or chronic inflammatory disorders
    constitutional     --over  
    in the decidua of patients with recurrent miscarriage may be linked to disturbed implantation and vascularization with consecutive placental and fetal rejection
    Susceptibility
  • to rheumatoid arthritis
  • to psoriasis (PSORS9)
  • Variant & Polymorphism other association was identified at a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (g.96516A --> T) within the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) to psoriasis
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cancerhemopathy 
    effective drug targeting for potential therapy of human LGL leukemia
    immunologyinflammatory 
    antibodies specific as therapeutic targets in rheumatoid arthritis
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • aged IL-15-/- mice show a reduced number of peritoneal mast cells compared to WT mice