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Symbol IFNB1 contributors: mct - updated : 26-03-2020
HGNC name interferon, beta 1, fibroblast
HGNC id 5434
Location 9p21.3      Physical location : 21.077.104 - 21.077.943
Synonym name
  • fibroblast interferon
  • Synonym symbol(s) IFB, IFF, IFNB, MGC96956
    TYPE functioning gene
    SPECIAL FEATURE head to head
    STRUCTURE 0.84 kb     1 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Binding site
    MAPPING cloned Y linked Y status confirmed
    Map pter - D9S54 - D9S33 - IFNB1 - D9S126 - D9S3 - D9S104 - D9S43 - D9S19 - cen
    Authors Fountain (92),NIH/CEPH (92)
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    1 - 840 22.3 187 - 2007 17675303
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • alpha/beta interferon family
  • CATEGORY signaling cytokine
    basic FUNCTION
  • having antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer activities
  • secreted cytokine that complexes with type I IFN receptors to initiate a coordinated cellular program leading to widespread viral resistance
  • augments eosinophil adhesion-inducing activity of endothelial cells
  • modulates protein synthesis in the central nervous system
  • constitutive IFNB1 expression regulates HSP70AA1 levels to help maintain dendritic cells in a competent state for efficient priming of effector T cells
  • has the ability to induce apoptosis of melanoma cells
  • acts to suppress the generation of autoimmune-inducing Th17 cells during the development of disease as well as modulating pro-inflammatory mediators
  • immunomodulator, but may also act directly on neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) in the central nervous system
  • contributes to RAS transformation, supporting the notion that oncogene-induced cytokines play important roles in oncogene transformation
  • has broad immunomodulatory effects on many types of immune cells
  • may potentially induce antigen-specific T cells to produce IL10, which in turn negatively regulate Th17-mediate inflammatory and autoimmune response
  • IFNB1 regulates glucose metabolism mediated by signaling effectors similarly to activation by insulin
  • despite their use of the same receptor, IFNB1 and IFNA1 have unique and distinguishable biologic functions, with IFNB1 being mainly responsible for promoting viral persistence
  • protective role for IFNB1 in neuronal homeostasis
  • is a cytokine that is naturally produced by the immune system in response to biological and chemical stimuli
  • IFNB1 is pleiotropic in that it elicits antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities on numerous cell types
  • IFNB1 play essential roles in the host innate immune response to herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) infection
  • in addition to its well-known signaling activity, IFNB1 may be directly antimicrobial and be part of a growing family of cytokines and chemokines, called kinocidins, that also have antimicrobial properties
  • is a macrophage-derived effector cytokine facilitating the resolution of bacterial inflammation
    a component
    small molecule
  • CASP2 activation is commonly associated with induction of IFNB1-induced apoptosis in IFNB1-sensitive melanoma cells
  • stimulates IL10 production by activating the JAK1- and PI3K-signaling pathways
  • FOXO3 is a new IKBKE-controlled check-point of regulation of IFNB1 expression
  • TRIM11 inhibits DDX58-mediated IFNB1 production by targeting the TBK1 signaling complex
  • IFNB1 can uniquely and specifically ligate to IFNAR1 in an IFNAR2-independent manner
  • IFNB1-induced necroptosis of macrophages proceeds through tonic IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) signaling, which leads to persistent expression of STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9
  • is a novel negative regulator of IFNB1 production
  • IFNB1-induced necroptosis of macrophages proceeds through tonic IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (IRF9) signaling, which leads to persistent expression of STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9
  • HSPD1 interacted with IRF3 and it contributed to the induction of IFNB1
  • macrophage-specific regulation of IFNB1 transcription whereby TRIM33 is critical for IFNB1 gene transcription shutdown
  • SYK negatively regulates TLR4-mediated production of IFNB1 and IL10 and promotes inflammatory responses in dendritic cells through divergent regulation of downstream PI3K-AKT1 and NFKB1 signaling pathways
  • interactions of IRF1, IFNB1 and IRF5 are involved in the M1 polarization of macrophages and have antitumor functions
  • RB1 selectively inhibits innate IFNB1 production by enhancing deacetylation of IFNB1 promoter, exhibiting a previous unknown non-classical role in innate immunity, which also suggests a role of RB1 in the regulation of type I IFN production in inflammatory or autoimmune diseases
  • neddylation contributes to HSV-1-induced early phase IFNB1 production through, at least partially, promoting NFKB1 activation
  • unexpected roles for RIPK1 and RIPK3 kinases in the production of IFNB1 during the host inflammatory responses to bacterial infection, suggesting that the axis in which these kinases operate may represent a target for bacterial virulence factors
  • macrophages activated by metabolic endotoxemia infiltrated into islets and produced IFNB1, which induced beta-cell apoptosis by increasing the expression of XAF1
  • PIM1 specifically inhibits DDX58- and IFIH1-mediated IFNB1 signaling
  • ZBTB7B orchestrates stochastic interchromosomal interactions required for IFNB1 virus-inducible gene expression
  • IFNB1 signal may up-regulate CD274 expression through IRF9-dependent and independent pathways in lung cancer cells
  • ILF3 is an essential host factor required for efficient translation of the central antiviral cytokine, IFNB1, and a subset of interferon-stimulated genes
  • S100P protein interacts with interferon beta (IFNB1) depending on calcium level and oligomeric state of S100P
  • cell & other
    induced by in dendritic cells responding to viral infection (response is very broad, ranging from few tens to several thousands of mRNA copies)
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in dermatomyositis and polymyositis
    constitutional     --low  
    most lung cells from stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients show a constitutive decreased expression of IFNB1, IRF7, DDX58 and IFIH1, suggesting that this deficiency is the main cause of their acute viral exacerbations
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    immunologyautoimmunemultiple sclerosis
    major disease-modifying agent used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • overexpression of Ifnb1 in the CNS of adult wild-type mice, but not of mice lacking IFN-I receptor on their microglia, induces an ageing-like transcriptional microglial signature, and impairs cognitive performance
  • Ifnb mutant mice is a model for sporadic Lewy body and Parkinson's disease dementia