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FLASH GENE
Symbol HMGB2 contributors: mct - updated : 17-04-2015
HGNC name high-mobility group box 2
HGNC id 5000
Location 4q34.1      Physical location : 174.252.526 - 174.255.595
Synonym name
  • non histone chromosomal protein
  • high-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) protein 2
  • Synonym symbol(s) HMG2, HMG-2
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 3.07 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Physical map
    KIAA0626 4q32.3 KIAA0626 gene product AADAT 4q32.2 aminoadipate aminotransferase LOC132604 4q34.1 GalNAc transferase 10 isoform-like GALNT7 4q31.1 UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 7 (GalNAc-T7) HMGB2 4q31 high-mobility group box 2 SAP30 4q34.1 sin3-associated polypeptide, 30kDa SCRG1 4q31-q32 sin3-associated polypeptide, 30kDa LOC391716 4 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L5 LOC389242 4 LOC389242 HAND2 4q33 heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2 FLJ11539 4q34.1 hypothetical protein FLJ11539 MORF4 4q33-q34.1 mortality factor 4 LOC391717 4 similar to RAN protein LOC389243 4 LOC389243 FBXO8 4q34.1 F-box only protein 8 KIAA1712 4q34 KIAA1712 HPGD 4q34-q35 hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(NAD) GLRA3 4q33-q34 glycine receptor, alpha 3 ADAM29 4q34 a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 29 LOC391718 4 similar to hypothetical protein MGC2776 GPM6A 4q34 glycoprotein M6A WDR17 4q34 WD repeat domain 17 TSARG2 4q34.2 testis and spermatogenesis cell related protein 2 ASB5 4q34.1 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing 5 FLJ22649 4q34.2 hypothetical protein FLJ22649 similar to signal peptidase SPC22/23 VEGFC 4q34 vascular endothelial growth factor C
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    5 - 1467 - 209 - 2009 19223331
    4 - 1454 - 209 - 2009 19223331
    5 - 1527 - 209 - 2009 19223331
    EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Lymphoid/Immune      Homo sapiensAdult
    Reproductivemale systemtestis    Homo sapiensAdult
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow  highly Homo sapiensAdult
    Connectivecartilage  highly Homo sapiensAdult
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • two basic DNA binding domains of the HMG box type
  • known to bind to the DNA minor groove without sequence specificity, slightly intercalating base pairs and inducing a strong bend in the DNA helical axis
  • followed by a long acidic tail
  • a single box derivative
  • a C terminal stretch of negatively charged aminoacids
  • HOMOLOGY
    intraspecies homolog to HMGB1, HMGB3
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • HMGB family
  • CATEGORY DNA associated , transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endosome
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleoplasm
    intracellular,nucleus,chromatin/chromosome
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleolus
    text in mitotic cells, free and associated with the condensed chromatin
    basic FUNCTION
  • involved in the final ligation step in DNA end-joining processes of DNA double-strand breaks repair and V(D)J recombination
  • regulate various cellular activities, including transcription, DNA replication, and repair
  • with HMGB1, HMGB3, function as universal sentinels for nucleic acid
  • HMG2B potentiates GATA1-dependent transcription of GFI1B by POU5F1 and thereby controls erythroid differentiation
  • plays a significant role in tumor development and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma
  • HMGB1 and HMGB2 have critical roles in cellular processes, including transcription and DNA modification
  • HMGB1 and HMGB2 function redundantly to enhance WNT signaling in embryos
  • negatively regulated the stimulatory effect of WNT/CTNNB1 signaling on the RUNX2 proximal promoter
  • suppresses chondrogenic differentiation
  • its expression decreases with chondrocyte differentiation in growth plate but remains at high levels in bone marrow
  • necessary to protect colorectal cancer cells from DNA damage and efficient DNA repair and TP53-mediated downregulation is a critical mechanism of modulating HMGB2 expression
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, chromatin organization
    nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • complex NCL/YY1/HMG2 to mediate transcriptional derepression of FSHD gene resulting in disease
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • YY1 and NCL
  • TP53(stimulating TP53 binding to DNA containing TP53 consensus site)
  • could significantly up-regulate TOP2A gene promoter only in cells lacking functional retinoblastoma protein pRb
  • interaction between HMGB2 and the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway regulates the maintenance of the superficial zone of articular cartilage
  • is a key regulator of GFI1B transcription
  • negatively regulates RUNX2 expression
  • HMGB2 regulates MSC (mesenchymal stem cell) chondrogenesis in part by modulating the LEF1-dependent transactivation of RUNX2
  • POU5F1 post-translational modifications form a positive feedback loop, which promote AKT1 activation and interaction with HMGB2 and the SET Complex
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --low  
    during embryonic development
    constitutional     --low  
    age-related loss of HMGB2 may not only contribute tosuperficial zone disruption but also to the abnormal hypertrophic differentiation that is a feature of osteoarthritis cartilage
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cancerreproductivebreast
    PDGFRA, HSD17B4 and HMGB2 are potential therapeutic targets in polycystic ovarian syndrome and breast cancer
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • Hmgb2-/- mice are viable and only show a marked reduction in spermatogenesis