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Symbol HCN1 contributors: mct/npt - updated : 18-03-2019
HGNC name hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 1
HGNC id 4845
Corresponding disease
EIEE24 epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 24
Location 5p12      Physical location : 45.259.352 - 45.696.220
Synonym name brain cyclic nucleotide gated 1
Synonym symbol(s) BCNG1, BCNG-1, HAC-2
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 436.87 kb     8 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
text structure a CCG repeat in 5 prime utr
MAPPING cloned Y linked   status provisional
Physical map
GHR 5p13.1-p12 growth hormone receptor LOC389287 5 similar to synaptonemal complex protein SYP-1, SYnaPsis in meiosis abnormal SYP-1 (56.6 kD) (syp-1) SEPP1 5q31 selenoprotein P, plasma, 1 LOC391780 5 similar to peptidyl-Pro cis trans isomerase LOC340065 5p13.1 hypothetical LOC340065 LOC389288 5 LOC389288 LOC389289 5 similar to annexin II receptor LOC153684 5p13.1 hypothetical protein LOC153684 FLJ90723 5p13.1 hypothetical protein FLJ90723 FLJ10246 5p13.1 hypothetical protein FLJ10246 MGC42105 5p13.1 hypothetical protein MGC42105 HMGCS1 5p14-p13 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A synthase 1 (soluble) CCL28 5p12 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 FLJ21657 5p12 hypothetical protein FLJ21657 FLJ32363 5p12 FLJ32363 protein PAIP1 5q31.1-q31.3 Homo sapiens polyadenylate binding protein-interacting protein 1 (PAIP1), transcript variant 3, mRNA. NNT 5p13.1-cen nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase FGF10 5p13-p12 fibroblast growth factor 10 MRPS30 5q11 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S30 HCN1 19p13.3 hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 1
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
8 - 5386 93.6 890 - 2017 28086084
   expressed in (based on citations)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Cardiovascularheartconducting system    Homo sapiens
Hearing/EquilibriumearinnercochleaCorti  Homo sapiens
Nervousbrainhindbraincerebellum   Rattus norvegicus
 brainforebraincerebral cortex   Homo sapiens
Visualeyeretina  highly Homo sapiens
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Hearing / Equilibriumhair cell receptor Homo sapiens
Hearing / Equilibriumhair cell receptor Homo sapiens
Nervousneuron Homo sapiens
NervousPurkinje cell Rattus norvegicus
Visualcone photoreceptor Homo sapiens
cell lineage
cell lines
  • six transmembrane segments with a pore helix and a selectivity filter between S5 and S6 and
  • a cyclic nucleotide binding domain in the C terminus
  • mono polymer homomer , heteromer , dimer
    intraspecies homolog to Eag and H-erg
  • potassium channel HCN family
  • superfamily of voltage-gated pore loop channels
  • CATEGORY transport channel
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
  • in photoreceptors HCN1 is concentrated in the inner segments while in other retinal neurons, HCN1 is evenly distributed though the cell
  • basic FUNCTION
  • potentially modulating excitability in the brain and responding to regulation by cyclic nucleotides
  • act as an inhibitory constraint of both spatial learning and synaptic integration and long-term plasticity in the distal dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons (Tsay 2007)
  • playing a critical role in shaping the autonomous activity of single neurons and the periodicity of network oscillations
  • playing an important role for motor learning and neuronal integration by cerebellar Purkinje cells
  • inward current activated by hyperpolarization from the resting potential and an important modulator of action potential firing frequency in many excitable cells (Momin 2008)
  • likely playing a critical role in regulating cortical pyramidal cell excitability (Huang 2009)
  • play critical roles in homeostasis of neuronal activity crucial to neuronal physiology (Arimitsu 2009)
  • in rods and cones, HCN channels increase the natural frequency response of single cells by modifying the photocurrent input, which is limited in its frequency response by the speed of a molecular signaling cascade (Barrow 2009)
  • both the HCN1 and HCN2 isoforms are predominantly N-glycosylated in the embryonic heart, where they are found in significant amounts and where HCN-mediated currents are known to regulate beating frequency
  • HCN4 was confirmed as the predominant isoform of the primary pacemaker followed by a distinct expression of HCN1, but in contrast HCN2 shows only a confined expression to individual pacemaker cells
  • importance of HCN1 to intrinsic persistent firing and the behavioral output of the prefrontal cortex (PFC)
  • HCN1 stabilizes the leading pacemaker region within the sinoatrial node and hence is crucial for stable heart rate and regular beat-to-beat variation
  • HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 subunits may have distinct physiological roles in the developing hippocampus
  • importance of HCN1 channels for regular vision
  • since HCN1 channels also affect post-synaptic potential kinetics and integration, our results indicate that there are diverse ways by which HCN1 channels influence synaptic strength and plasticity
  • HCN1, HCN2, HCN4 channels are important regulators of excitability in neural, cardiac, and other pacemaking cells, which are often altered in disease
    a component
  • part of HCN channels (HCN1 and HCN2 may coassemble to form heteromeric channels in some areas, similar to other K(+) channels) (Ulens 2001)
    small molecule
  • cytoplasmic N-terminus of HCN1 binds the cytoplasmic C-terminus of stereociliary tip-link protein PCDH15
  • PEX5L-independent trafficking and plasticity of adult cortical presynaptic HCN1 channels
  • PEX5L in the retina is needed to achieve maximal expression of HCN1
  • cell & other
    activated by hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide gated potassium
    Other dynamically regulated by neuronal activity (Arimitsu 2009)
    corresponding disease(s) EIEE24
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --low  
    reduction in dendritic subunit expression during epileptogenesis (Huang 2009)
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
  • absence of Hcn1 in Cngb1 knockout (KO) mice exacerbated photoreceptor degeneration
  • mice lacking the pacemaker channel HCN1 display congenital Sinus node dysfunction (SND) characterized by bradycardia, sinus dysrhythmia, prolonged sinoatrial node recovery time, increased sinoatrial conduction time, and recurrent sinus pauses