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Symbol GPX1 contributors: mct - updated : 09-10-2013
HGNC name glutathione peroxidase 1
HGNC id 4553
Corresponding disease
GPX1 hemolytic anemia
Location 3p21.31      Physical location : 49.394.610 - 49.395.791
Synonym symbol(s) GSHPX1, GPXD
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 1.18 kb     2 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Promoter
Binding site   transcription factor
text structure AP-2 regulatory region in the promoter of the GPX1 gene
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
Physical map
SLC25A20 3p21.31 solute carrier family 25 (carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase), member 20 ARIH2 3p21.2-p21.3 ariadne homolog 2 (Drosophila) PH-4 3p21.31 hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl 4-hydroxylase WDR6 15q21 WD repeat domain 6 FLJ10496 3p21.31 hypothetical protein FLJ10496 DKFZP564J0123 3p21.31 nuclear protein E3-3 IMPDH2 3p21.2 IMP (inosine monophosphate) dehydrogenase 2 FLJ20259 3p21.31 FLJ20259 protein QARS 3p21.3-p21.2 glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase USP19 3p21.3-p14.2 ubiquitin specific protease 19 LAMB2 3p21.3-p21.2 laminin, beta 2 (laminin S) FLJ12800 3p21.31 hypothetical protein FLJ12800 MGC35097 3p21.31 hypothetical protein MGC35097 LOC339834 3p21.31 hypothetical protein LOC339834 FLJ43654 3p21.31 FLJ43654 protein USP4 3p21.31 ubiquitin specific protease 4 (proto-oncogene) GPX1 3p21.2 glutathione peroxidase 1 ARHA 3p21.2 ras homolog gene family, member A TCTA 3p21 T-cell leukemia translocation altered gene AMT 3p21.2 aminomethyltransferase (glycine cleavage system protein T) NICN1 3p21.31 nicolin 1 DAG1 3p21.2-p21.1 dystroglycan 1 (dystrophin-associated glycoprotein 1) BSN 3p21.31 bassoon (presynaptic cytomatrix protein) APEH 3p21.3-p21.2 N-acylaminoacyl-peptide hydrolase MST1 3p21.31 macrophage stimulating 1 (hepatocyte growth factor-like) RNF123 3p24.3 ring finger protein 123 GMPPB 3p21.31 GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase B IHPK1 3p21.31 inositol hexaphosphate kinase 1 LOC389117 3 similar to mouse fat 1 cadherin LOC389118 3 similar to VLLR9392 LOC389119 3 similar to RIKEN cDNA 6530418L21 UBE1L 3p21.2 ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1-like TRIP 3p21.31 TRAF interacting protein
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
2 splicing 921 - 203 - 2003 12893824
- splicing 1200 - 98 - 2003 12893824
Type ubiquitous
   expressed in (based on citations)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Cardiovascularheart   highly
 vessel   highly
Digestivesalivary gland   highly
Endocrineparathyroid   highly
Lymphoid/Immunespleen   moderately
 thymus   predominantly
Reproductivefemale systemovary  highly
 female systemuteruscervix moderately
 male systemprostate  moderately
Skin/Tegumentskin   highly
Urinarykidney   moderately
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Connectiveadipose  highly
cell lineage
cell lines
  • a polyalanine sequence polymorphism in the N-terminal region
  • includes three alleles with five, six or seven alanine (ALA) repeats in this sequence
  • mono polymer homomer , tetramer
    interspecies ortholog to rattus Gpx1
    ortholog to murine Gpx1
  • glutathione peroxidase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • free radical detoxification
  • catabolic pathway of activated oxygen species
  • involved in the protection of the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown
  • implicated as a mechanism of resistance against oxygen free radicals
  • plays an important role in cellular defense by converting hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides to nonreactive products
  • likely a major role for GPX1 in cardiac dysfunction in ANGPT2-dependent hypertension
  • modulates potentially the endothelial cell response to LPS, in part, by altering CD14-mediated effects
  • selenium-containing protein, associated with cancer risk and development
  • regulates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in the cerebral microvasculature, but that this is affected by the nature of the inflammatory insult
  • GPX5 protein, and the epithelial proteins GPX1, GPX3, and cellular GPX4, all functioning in the mammalian epididymis at different stages of the sperm epididymal journey, and in different epididymis compartments
  • anti-oxidant enzyme that may protect lungs from oxidative damage
  • primes potentially pro-inflammatory cytokine production after LPS challenge
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS detoxification
    a component
    small molecule other,
  • selenium (Se)
  • protein
  • SELENBP1 and GPX1 form a physical association (interaction between two distinct selenium-containing proteins that may enhance the understanding of the mechanisms by which selenium and selenoproteins affect carcinogenesis)
  • GPX1 is regulated by TFAP2C through an AP-2 regulatory region in the promoter of the GPX1 gene
  • cell & other
    inhibited by inhibited in lung cancer with 3p loss (affect prognosis of cancer)
    corresponding disease(s) GPX1
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral   LOH    
    in a significant percentage of colorectal cancer
    constitutional       loss of function
    augments proinflammatory cytokine-induced redox signaling and endothelial cell activation
  • to breast cancer
  • to several types of malignancies
  • to type 2 diabetes
  • to Keshan disease (endemic dilated cardiomyopathy)
  • to thoracic aortic aneurysm in hypertensive patients
  • Variant & Polymorphism other
  • allele with five ALA repeats is significantly associated with breast cancer risk
  • the C-->T (Pro198Leu) polymorphism is protective against thoracic aortic aneurysm in hypertensive patients
  • a single nucleotide polymorphism (Pro198Leu) associated with selenium deficiency as well as impaired GPX1 activity, which may, in turn, increase the incidence of KD (Keshan disease)
  • variant associated with cancer risk for several types of malignancies
  • GPX1 variants might contribute to the development of diabetes type 2
  • Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    may represent a potential therapeutic target for enhancement of regenerative capacity of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in old subjects
    overexpressing GPX1 in endothelial cells is able to change the basal mRNA and protein BAX levels without affecting those of TP53 and BCL2 (useful to antiatherogenic therapies which use antioxidants with the aim of protecting the vascular wall against ox
  • Gpx1(-/-) mice displayed significant reductions in rolling and adhesion associated with severe blood flow restriction