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FLASH GENE
Symbol GPR68 contributors: mct/npt - updated : 29-11-2016
HGNC name G protein-coupled receptor 68
HGNC id 4519
Corresponding disease
AI2A6 amelogenesis imperfecta, hypomaturation type, IIA6
Location 14q32.11      Physical location : 91.698.876 - 91.720.224
Synonym name ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor, 1
Synonym symbol(s) OGR1, MGC111379, MGC156983, GPR12A, AI2A6
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 32.05 kb     2 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
Physical map
PRO1768 14q32.11 PRO1768 protein CHORDC2P 14 cysteine and histidine-rich domain (CHORD)-containing 2 pseudogene C14orf143 14q32.11 chromosome 14 open reading frame 143 TDP1 14q32.11 tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 KCNK13 14q24.1-q24.3 potassium channel, subfamily K, member 13 GLRXP2 14q32.13-q32.2 glutaredoxin pseudogene 2 PSMC1 19p13.3 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase, 1 C14orf102 14q32.11 chromosome 14 open reading frame 102 RPL21P11 14q32.11 ribosomal protein L21 pseudogene 11 CALM1 14q24-q31 calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) TTC7L1 14q32.12 tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7 like 1 RPS18P2 14 ribosomal protein S18 pseudogene 2 LOC283588 14q32.12 hypothetical protein LOC283588 RPS6KA5 14q31-q32.1 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 5 C14orf159 14q32.12 chromosome 14 open reading frame 159 GPR68 14q31 G protein-coupled receptor 68 KIAA1509 14q32.12 KIAA1509 LOC388005 14 similar to RIKEN cDNA 0610010D24 KIAA2010 14q32.12 KIAA2010 C14orf161 14q32.12 chromosome 14 open reading frame 161 MTAC2D1 14q32.12 membrane targeting (tandem) C2 domain containing 1 FBLN5 14q32.1 fibulin 5 TRIP11 14q31-q32 thyroid hormone receptor interactor 11 PTMAP7 14 prothymosin, alpha pseudogene 7 MJD 14q24.4-q32.1 Machado-Joseph disease (spinocerebellar ataxia 3, olivopontocerebellar ataxia 3, autosomal dominant, ataxin 3) NDUFB1 14q31.3 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 1, 7kDa CPSF2 14q31.3 cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 2, 100kDa SLC24A4 14q32.12-q32.13 solute carrier family 24 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger), member 4 RIN3 14q32.13 Ras and Rab interactor 3 LGMN 14q32.1 legumain GOLGA5 14q24.3-q31.3 golgi autoantigen, golgin subfamily a, 5
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
2 - 2834 - 365 - 2012 22508039
2 - 2880 - 365 - 2012 22508039
EXPRESSION
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Digestiveintestine     Homo sapiens
 mouthtoothenamel   Homo sapiensAdult
Lymphoid/Immunethymus    
Reproductivemale systemprostate   
Visualeyeretina  highly Homo sapiens
tissue
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Connectivebone   
Lymphoid    
cells
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Blood/Hematopoieticleukocyte
Digestiveameloblast Homo sapiensFetal
Skeletonosteoblast
cell lineage
cell lines osteosarcoma cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
physiological period pregnancy
Text placenta
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • seven transmembrane segments (7TM) receptor
  • HOMOLOGY
    intraspecies homolog to GPR4,strongly
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • G protein coupled receptor 1 family
  • CATEGORY receptor membrane G
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • proton-sensing G-protein coupled receptor involved in bone metabolism, in the regulation of respiration, and cardiovascular function
  • proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) implicated in osteoblast and osteoclast function
  • acting as a proton-sensing receptor stimulating inositol phosphate formation
  • is involved in osteoclastogenesis
  • may be involved in the regulation of plasma membrane transport proteins and intra- and/or extracellular pH
  • involvement of GPR68 in acidic extracellular environment may be an underlying mechanism responsible for bone pain in osteoporosis or bone metastasis without clinically proved fractures
  • pathophysiological role for pH-sensing receptor GPR68 during the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation
  • GPR4, GPR65 and GPR68 are G protein-coupled receptors that aid cells to sense and survive conditions of acidic pH
  • pH-sensing receptor GPR68 that improves barrier function of epithelial cells and inhibits migration in an acidic environment
  • CASR and GPR68 reciprocally inhibit signaling through each other in central neurons, but strong intracellular acidification impairs CASR function, and potentiates GPR68 function
  • plays likely a key role in regulating T cell responses during autoimmunity
  • GPR4, GPR68, GPR65, GPR132 are regulators of cell proliferation and migration during tumor growth and wound healing
  • role for GPR68 as a proton sensor that is required for proper enamel formation
  • recognized pH sensor in osteoblasts and osteocytes
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • receptor for sphingosylphosphorylcholine
  • interacting with RGS18 (acts as a negative regulator of the acidosis-induced osteoclastogenic GPR68/NFATC1 signaling pathway)
  • beta-cell enriched transcription factor RFX6 is a major regulator of GPR68
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    Other extracellular acidification stimulates GPR68 mediated IL8 production in human pancreatic beta cells
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) AI2A6
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in the mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS