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FLASH GENE
Symbol GPR4 contributors: mct - updated : 29-11-2016
HGNC name G protein-coupled receptor 4
HGNC id 4497
Location 19q13.32      Physical location : 46.093.024 - 46.105.466
Synonym name
  • G-protein coupled receptor 19
  • Synonym symbol(s) GPR19
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 12.44 kb     2 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    2 - 3057 - 362 - 2011 22110680
    EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart    
    Digestivemouthtongue  highly
    Endocrinethyroid   highly
    Lymphoid/Immunespleen   highly
     thymus   highly
    Respiratorylung    
    Urinarykidneyrenal medulla  moderately Homo sapiens
     kidneytubulecollecting duct   Homo sapiens
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectiveadiposewhite   Homo sapiens
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularendothelial cell Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
    seven transmembrane segments (7TM) receptor
    conjugated GlycoP
    HOMOLOGY
    intraspecies homolog to platelet-activating factor receptor (PTAFR)
    Homologene
    FAMILY proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor family
    CATEGORY receptor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • rhodopsin-like receptor activity
  • is a pH sensor with an important role in regulating acid secretion in the kidney collecting duct
  • GPR4 activation by an acidic pH inhibits tumor cell migration and invasion
  • acidosis/GPR4 signaling regulates endothelial cell adhesion mainly through the G(s)/cAMP/RAPGEF3 pathway and may play a role in the inflammatory response of vascular endothelial cells
  • GPR4, GPR65 and GPR68 are G protein-coupled receptors that aid cells to sense and survive conditions of acidic pH
  • GPR4, GPR68, GPR65, GPR132 are regulators of cell proliferation and migration during tumor growth and wound healing
  • proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor and an acid sensor in brain, kidney, and blood vessels
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
    G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • TNFSF11-expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment was mediated by cAMP/PRKACA signaling resulting from GPR4 activation 0)
  • affects endothelial cells (ECs) by regulating NOTCH1, a function that may be important for physiological and pathological angiogenesis
  • is a novel component of central blood pressure control through interactions with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    activated by by extracellular protons in the physiological pH range (i.e. pH 7.7 - 6.8) and is coupled to the production of cAMP
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in cancer tissues
    constitutional       loss of function
    improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • expression and activity of the key transport proteins in Gpr4 -/- mice are consistent with spontaneous metabolic acidosis, but the adaptive response to a superimposed exogenous acid load is blunted
  • mice lacking Gpr4 have an improved intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and increased insulin sensitivity