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FLASH GENE
Symbol GDF11 contributors: shn - updated : 07-09-2011
HGNC name growth differentiation factor 11
HGNC id 4216
Location 12q13.2      Physical location : 56.137.063 - 56.146.664
Synonym name
  • GDF-11
  • bone morphogenetic protein 11
  • growth/differentiation factor 11
  • Synonym symbol(s) BMP-11, BMP11
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 7.00 kb     3 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Map cen - D12S1707 - D12S1035 - GDF11 - D12S1632 - D12S1644 - qter
    Physical map
    LOC390321 12 similar to olfactory receptor MOR111-1 LOC254786 12q13.13 similar to olfactory receptor MOR111-4 LOC390322 12 similar to olfactory receptor MOR111-4 LOC390323 12 similar to olfactory receptor MOR112-1 LOC390324 12 similar to olfactory receptor MOR109-1 LOC390325 12 similar to olfactory receptor GA_x6K02T2PULF-11304679-11303744 LOC283368 12q13.13 similar to Polyhomeotic-like protein 1 (Early development regulator protein 1) (HPH1) LOC390326 12 similar to olfactory receptor MOR108-4 LOC341416 12q13.13 similar to olfactory receptor MOR114-1 LOC390327 12 similar to olfactory receptor GA_x6K02T2PULF-11553313-11552381 LOC390328 12 similar to olfactory receptor MOR114-12 LOC341418 12q13.13 similar to Olfactory receptor 6C4 LOC121129 12q13.13 similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor LOC390329 12 similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor LOC121130 12q13.13 similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor PSMB3P 12q12 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 3 pseudogene MGC17301 12q13.13 hypothetical protein MGC17301 ITGA7 12q13.3 integrin, alpha 7 GCN5L1 12q13-q14 GCN5 general control of amino-acid synthesis 5-like 1 (yeast) RDH5 12q13-q14 retinol dehydrogenase 5 (11-cis and 9-cis) CD63 12q12-q13 CD63 antigen (melanoma 1 antigen) GDF11 12q12 growth differentiation factor 11 CIP29 12q13.13 cytokine induced protein 29 kDa ORMDL2 12q12 ORM1-like 2 (S. cerevisiae) DNAJ 12q13.13 DnaJ protein MMP19 12q14 matrix metalloproteinase 19 PYM 12q13.13 PYM protein DGKA 12q13.3 diacylglycerol kinase, alpha 80kDa SILV 12q13-q14 silver homolog (mouse) CDK2 12q13.3 cyclin-dependent kinase 2 SUOX RAB5B 12q13 RAB5B, member RAS oncogene family ZNFN1A4 12q13 zinc finger protein, subfamily 1A, 4 (Eos) RPS26 12q14 ribosomal protein S26 ERBB3 12q13.3 v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (avian) PA2G4 12q13 proliferation-associated 2G4, 38kDa RPL41 12q14 ribosomal protein L41 FLJ14451 12q13.13 hypothetical protein FLJ14451
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    3 - 4260 - 407 - -
    EXPRESSION
    Type
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveintestinelarge intestinecolon  
    Nervousnervecranial nerveoptic nerve  
    Visualeyeanterior segment   
     eyelens   
     eyeuveachoroid  
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectivebone   
    Epithelialbarrier liningretinal pigment epithelium (RPE)  
    cell lineage
    cell lines Ewing's sarcoma
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period fetal
    Text fetal eye
    primitive streak and tail bud regions during embryogenesis (
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
    mono polymer homomer , dimer
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to Gdf11, Mus musculus
    ortholog to Gdf11, Rattus norvegicus
    ortholog to GDF11, Pan troglodytes
    ortholog to gdf11, Danio rerio
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • transforming growth factor beta(TGFbeta) superfamily member
  • CATEGORY regulatory , transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
    text secreted
    basic FUNCTION
  • acts globally to specify positional identity along the anterior/posterior axis
  • plays a unique role in patterning both mesodermal and neural tissues
  • controlling the numbers of retinal ganglion cells, as well as amacrine and photoreceptor cells, that form during development
  • play important roles in the development of the olfactory system, retina, and pancreas as well as in anterior–posterior patterning of the axial skeleton
  • facilitate temporal progression of neurogenesis in the developing spinal cord
  • expression of PCSK5 and GDF11, which plays a crucial role in the organogenesis of the hindgut, was disturbed in the hindgut region when retinoid-mediated signaling was disrupted
  • GDF11, ACTB and FST are crucial components of a circuit that controls both total cell number and the ratio of neuronal versus glial cells in in this system
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, differentiation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS development
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • ALK4, ALK5 and ALK7 (
  • WFIKKN1 and WFIKKN2 proteins are antagonists of MSTN and GDF11, but in the case of TGFB1, BMP2 and BMP4 they function as growth factor binding proteins
  • WFIKKN1 and WFIKKN2 are important modulators of GDF11 and MSTN activity
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • homozygous mutant mice carrying a targeted deletion of Gdf11 exhibit anteriorly directed homeotic transformations throughout the axial skeleton and posterior displacement of the hindlimbs
  • Gdf11-/- mice have dramatic anteriorly directed homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton (i.e., posterior regions take a more anterior fate)
  • neuronal differentiation in the spinal cord progresses at a slower rate in Gdf11(-/-) mouse embryos (