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FLASH GENE
Symbol GCGR contributors: mct - updated : 11-09-2015
HGNC name glucagon receptor
HGNC id 4192
Corresponding disease
NIDDM11 diabetes mellitus, non insulin-dependent, 11
Location 17q25.3      Physical location : 79.762.009 - 79.771.889
Synonym symbol(s) GGR, MGC138246, GL-R
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
SPECIAL FEATURE arranged in tandem
STRUCTURE 9.88 kb     14 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Promoter
text structure
  • two transcription start sites, and two distinct promoters that are functional
  • proximal promoter, but not the distal promoter, could be inhibited approximately by cAMP
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked Y status confirmed
    Physical map
    LOC388439 17 LOC388439 LOC390818 17 similar to RPL23AP7 protein SH3GLP3 17q24 SH3-domain GRB2-like pseudogene 3 LOC388443 17 LOC388443 DOC2B 17p13.3 double C2-like domains, beta LOC390820 17 similar to hypothetical protein LOC130888 LOC388435 17 LOC388435 LOC388453 17 LOC388453 LOC388440 17 similar to cytokine LOC388436 17 hypothetical gene supported by BC058012 LOC388444 17 similar to LOC147111 protein LOC388445 17 similar to hypothetical protein BC009233 LOC388446 17 similar to myeloid-associated differentiation marker GCGR 17q25 glucagon receptor LOC388438 17 similar to MEGF11 protein LOC348262 17 hypothetical protein LOC348262 LOC388441 17 similar to aminopeptidase puromycin sensitive; puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase; metalloproteinase MP100 LOC388437 17 similar to hypothetical protein DKFZp434F142 LOC388447 17 similar to dysferlin-interacting protein 1 LOC390752 17 similar to Buccalin precursor LOC388448 17 similar to prolyl 4-hydroxylase, beta subunit; v-erb-a avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2-like; disulfide isomerase; protein disulfide isomerase/oxidoreductase; thyroid hormone-binding protein p55; glutathione-in RPH3AL 17p13.3 rabphilin 3A-like (without C2 domains) KPNA2 17q23.1-q23.3 karyopherin alpha 2 (RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1) LOC390819 17 similar to aminopeptidase puromycin sensitive; puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase; metalloproteinase MP100 LOC388442 17 similar to TBC1 domain family member 3 (Rab GTPase-activating protein PRC17) (Prostate cancer gene 17 protein) (TRE17 alpha protein) LOC388449 17 LOC388449 LOC388450 17 similar to Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (Phosphorylethanolamine transferase) (CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase) LOC388451 17 hypothetical gene supported by AL137626; NM_016538 LOC388452 17 hypothetical gene supported by BC012327; NM_002359
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    14 - 2053 - 477 - 2007 17374560
    EXPRESSION
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveintestinelarge intestinecolon highly Homo sapiens
    Endocrinepancreas     Homo sapiens
    Urinarykidney   lowly
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Endocrineislet cell (alpha,beta...) Homo sapiens
    Lymphoid/Immunemacrophage Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • seven transmembrane segments
  • conjugated GlycoP
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to murine Gcgr
    ortholog to rattus Gcgr
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • secretin family, coupling with Gs alpha protein and activating adenylate cyclase
  • G-protein coupled receptor 2 family
  • superfamily of receptors characterize
  • class B G protein-coupled receptor family
  • CATEGORY receptor membrane G
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,membrane
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endosome
    text
  • integral to plasma membrane
  • basic FUNCTION
  • playing a central role in regulating the level of blood glucose by controlling the rate of hepatic glucose production and insulin secretion
  • playing a role in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy
  • invovled in the regulation of blood pressure
  • is required for control of lipid metabolism during the adaptive metabolic response to fasting
  • activation of GCGR induced CTNNB1 stabilization and activated CTNNB1-mediated transcription
  • GCGR is expressed in the human colon and, once activated by exogenous GCG, mediates an inhibitory effect on large intestine motility through NO neural release
  • GLP1R, GIPR, and GCGR internalize with differential properties
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism energetic
    signaling hormonal
  • activity mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase and also a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system
  • GCG, GCGR signaling correlates with STAT3 activation and macrophage polarization
  • a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • activation of GCGR by GCG leads to increased glucose production by the liver
  • LRP5 physically interacted with GCGR
  • GCG plays a pivotal role in glucose homeostasis through its receptor GCGR
  • interactors of GCGR, LDLR and TMED2, significantly enhanced glucagon-stimulated glucose production, while YWHAB inhibited glucose production
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) NIDDM11
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    pancreatic beta-cell overexpression of GCGR results in enhanced beta-cell function and mass
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    diabete  
    sweeteners and secretagogues that increase plasma concentrations of endogenous GCG may provide such an alternative means to promote GCG receptor activity as a treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • Glp-1 receptor (Glp-1r) null mice had reduced neural and behavioral responses specifically to sweet compounds compared to wild-type (WT) mice
  • mice genetically deficient in the glucagon receptor (Gcgr) are refractory to the pathophysiological symptoms of insulin deficiency
  • defective glucagon signaling causes pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) in the Gcgr(-/-) mice