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FLASH GENE
Symbol GAL contributors: mct - updated : 09-03-2009
HGNC name galanin prepropeptide
HGNC id 4114
Location 11q13.2      Physical location : 68.451.982 - 68.458.642
Synonym name
  • preprogalanin
  • galanin
  • galanin-message-associated peptide
  • Synonym symbol(s) GLN, PGAL, GALN, GMAP, GLNN, MGC40167
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 6.66 kb     6 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Map cen - ACTN3 - PC - ADRBK1 - PPP1CA - GSTPP - NDUFV1 - GAL - D11S97 - D11S146 - CCND1 - FGF4 - FGF3 - qter
    Physical map
    ALDH3B2 11q13 aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member B2 RPL37P2 11q13 ribosomal protein L37 pseudogene 2 LOC132740 11q13.1 similar to unc-93 homolog B1; unc93 (C.elegans) homolog B; unc-93 related protein LOC390215 11 similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor OR7E11P 11q11 olfactory receptor, family 7, subfamily E, member 11 pseudogene LOC390216 11 similar to mannosyltransferase LOC158490 11q13.1 similar to hypothetical protein FLJ10661 LOC387785 11 LOC387785 LOC390217 11 similar to chromosome 11 open reading frame2; chromosome  11 open reading frame2 LOC341128 11q13.1 similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor UNC93B1 11q13 unc-93 homolog B1 (C. elegans) ALDH3B1 11q13 aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member B1 NDUFS8 11q13 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 8, 23kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) TCIRG1 11q13.4-q13.5 T-cell, immune regulator 1, ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 protein a isoform 3 CHK 11q13.1 choline kinase CGI-85 11q13 choline kinase C11orf24 11q13 chromosome 11 open reading frame 24 LRP5 11q13 low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 C11orf23 11q13 chromosome 11 open reading frame 23 GAL 11q13.3-q13.5 galanin MTL5 11q13.2-q13.3 metallothionein-like 5, testis-specific (tesmin) CPT1A 11q13.1-q13.2 carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (liver) MRPL21 11q13.1 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L21 IGHMBP2 11q13.2-q13.4 immunoglobulin mu binding protein 2 MRGD 11 mas-related G protein-coupled MRGD MGC21621 11q13.1 G protein-coupled receptor MrgF TPCN2 11q13.1 two pore segment channel 2 LOC338694 11q13.2 hypothetical protein LOC338694 MYEOV 11q13.1 myeloma overexpressed gene (in a subset of t(11;14) positive multiple myelomas) LOC390218 11 similar to Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (Interferon-inducible protein 1-8U) LOC220061 11q13.2 similar to proline rich antigen 2
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    6 - 778 13.2 123 - 1991 1722333
    EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveintestine     Homo sapiens
     stomach    
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Nervouscentral    Homo sapiens
    Nervousperipherous    Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
    HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • galanin family
  • CATEGORY motor/contractile
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        intracellular
    intracellular,nucleus
    text coexpressed with GALNR1
    basic FUNCTION
  • eliciting numerous functions, including inhibition of neurotransmitter release, regulation of pituitary hormone secretion and possibly food intake
  • playing a critical role for the development and function of specific subsets of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system
  • regulates neuroendocrine hypothalamic axes, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) one
  • plays a role in the modulation of HPA-axis response to stress, as well as in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas and perhaps of pheochromocytomas
  • may be playing a modulatory rather than regulatory role in the central and peripheral branches of the neuroendocrine systems
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • acting via three subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors, named GALR1, GALR2 and GALR3 (with its receptors are expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, anterior pituitary and adrenal medulla)
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    with GALR2 at very high levels in pheochromocytoma tissues
    Susceptibility to hypertriglyceridemia (HTG)
    Variant & Polymorphism SNP SNP rs2187331 is associated with HTG in familial combined hyperlipidemia
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target galanin/GALR2 agonists may have future therapeutic implications for multiple sclerosis
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS