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FLASH GENE
Symbol FSTL1 contributors: mct/pgu - updated : 24-05-2016
HGNC name follistatin-like 1
HGNC id 3972
Location 3q13.33      Physical location : 120.113.061 - 120.169.918
Synonym name
  • follistatin related protein 1
  • transforming growth factor-beta1-inducible protein 36
  • Synonym symbol(s) FRP, FSL1, FRP-PEN, FLJ50214, FLJ52277, TSC-36
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 56.86 kb     11 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Physical map
    CDGAP 3q13.33 general transcription factor IIE, polypeptide 1, alpha 56kDa FLJ10902 3q13.33 hypothetical protein FLJ10902 MDS010 3q13.33 x 010 protein C3orf1 3q13.33 chromosome 3 open reading frame 1 CD80 3q13.3-q21 CD80 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 1, B7-1 antigen) CSRP2P 3q21.1 cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2 pseudogene ADPRH 3q13.31-q13.33 ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase PLA1A 3q13.13-q13.2 phospholipase A1 member A LOC391569 3 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L10 (QM protein) (Tumor suppressor QM) (Laminin receptor homolog) POPDC2 3q13.33 popeye domain containing 2 COX17 3p14.3-p14.1 COX17 homolog, cytochrome c oxidase assembly protein (yeast) AAT1 3q12-q13.3 AAT1-alpha NR1I2 3q12-q13.3 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2 GSK3B 3q13.3 glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta LOC389143 3 LOC389143 GPR156 3q13.33 G protein-coupled receptor 156 LOC116064 3q13.33 hypothetical protein LOC116064 FSTL1 3q13.33 follistatin-like 1 NDUFB4 3q13.33 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 4, 15kDa HGD 3q21-q23 homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (homogentisate oxidase) MGC23920 GTF2E1 3q21-q24 general transcription factor IIE, polypeptide 1, alpha 56kDa KIAA1006 3q13.33 general transcription factor IIE, polypeptide 1, alpha 56kDa POLQ 3q13.31 polymerase (DNA directed), theta
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    11 - 3840 35 308 - 2004 15638044
    EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart   highly Homo sapiens
    Digestiveliver   moderately
    Nervousspinal cordsensory gangliadorsal root highly Homo sapiens
    Respiratorylung   moderately
    Urinarykidney   moderately
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Muscularstriatumcardiac   Homo sapiens
    Muscularstriatumskeletal   Homo sapiens
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularendothelial cell Homo sapiens
    Nervousneuron Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period pregnancy
    Text placenta highly
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • one Kazal type S protease inhibitor domain
  • one VWFC domain
  • one signal sequence
  • an FS module, a follistatin-like sequence containing 10 conserved cysteine residues
  • extracellular calcium-binding domain
  • conjugated GlycoP
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to C.elegans C50H2.1
    intraspecies homolog to follistatin
    Homologene
    FAMILY
    CATEGORY antigen
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        intracellular
    intracellular,nucleus
    basic FUNCTION
  • inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration
  • cardiac-secreted factor functioning as an antiapoptotic protein that could play a role in myocardial maintenance and repair in response to harmful stimuli
  • acting as a muscle-derived secreted factor that is up-regulated by AKT1 activation and ischemic stress and exerting favorable actions on the heart and vasculature
  • promotes endothelial cell function and accelerates ischemia-induced revascularization
  • functions as an injury-induced secreted protein that protects against ischemic damage
  • can directly act on cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells to protect them from apoptosis through activation of the AKT1 protein kinase, a key regulator of growth and cell survival in the cardiovascular system
  • also implicated in immune cell regulation
  • is potentially one of the mesenchymal factors determining oviductal epithelial cell fate
  • appears to function independently of TGFB family proteins
  • functions as an injury-induced, antihypertrophic “cardiokine” that activates AMPK signaling
  • has the function of evoking innate immune responses as one of the endogenous TLR4 agonists
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • activin-binding protein
  • interacting with DIP2A, a novel FSTL1-binding partner from the membrane fraction of endothelial cells
  • role as a BMP antagonist in early development
  • interacts with CD14, which is known to mediate toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling
  • FSTL1 attenuates differentiation and survival of erythroid cells through SMAD2/3 signaling
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    induced by in the heart in response to AKT1-mediated hypertrophy and ischemic and pressure overload stresses
    in response to injurious conditions that promote myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in synovial tissues from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients
    constitutional     --over  
    in the myocardium in response to AKT1-induced hypertrophic growth and myocardial stress, including pressure overload, ischemia-reperfusion, and myocardial infarction
    constitutional     --over  
    in skeletal muscle in response to hypertrophic signals and ischemic injury, both of which will stimulate blood vessel growth
    constitutional     --over  
    with FSTL3 in heart failure but returned to normal after recovery
    constitutional     --over  
    protects against the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure following pressure overload
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • serum FSTL1 levels may thus serve as a serological inflammatory marker of disease activity in RA patients
  • Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • endochondral bone development, limb patterning as well as patterning of the axial skeleton are perturbed in the absence of Fstl1 in mice
  • Fstl1-deficient mice displayed a reduction in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in heart, whereas Fstl1 overexpression led to increased myocardial AMPK activation under these conditions