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FLASH GENE
Symbol ENPP2 contributors: mct/npt - updated : 16-04-2008
HGNC name ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (autotaxin)
HGNC id 3357
Location 8q24.13      Physical location : 120.569.318 - 120.651.106
Synonym name
  • autotaxin
  • tumor cell motility stimulating factor
  • plasma lysophospholipase D
  • Synonym symbol(s) ATX, PDH1A, PNP2, PDNP2, ATX-X, FLJ26803, LysoPLD, NPP2, PD-IALPHA
    EC.number 3.1.4.1, 3.6.1.9, 3.1.4.39
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 81.00 kb     27 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked   status provisional
    Map see COLEC10
    Physical map
    EIF3S3 8q24.13 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit 3 gamma, 40kDa MGC14595 8q24.11 hypothetical protein MGC14595 RAD21 8q24.11 RAD21 homolog (S. pombe) SLC30A8 8q24.11 solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 8 TRAP25 EXT1 8q24.11 exostoses (multiple) 1 LOC392263 8 similar to RIKEN cDNA A830094I09 gene LOC286091 8q24.12 similar to 40S ribosomal protein S26 TNFRSF11B 8q24.13 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 11b (osteoprotegerin) COLEC10 8q24.13 collectin sub-family member 10 (C-type lectin) MAL2 8q23 mal, T-cell differentiation protein 2 NOV 8q24.1 nephroblastoma overexpressed gene LOC392264 8 hypothetical gene supported by AK122835 ENPP2 8q24.13 ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (autotaxin) HCP23 8q24.12 cytochrome c, somatic pseudogene TAF2 8q24.12 TAF2 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 150kDa MGC5528 8q24.12 defective in sister chromatid cohesion homolog 1 (S. cerevisiae) MGC14407 8q24.12 hypothetical protein MGC14407 FLJ12428 8q24.12 hypothetical protein FLJ12428 LOC389682 8 similar to collagen type XIV COL14A1 8q24.13 collagen, type XIV, alpha 1 (undulin) MRPL13 8q22.1-q22.3 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L13 MTBP 8q24.1-q24.2 Mdm2, transformed 3T3 cell double minute 2, p53 binding protein (mouse) binding protein, 104kDa SNTB1 8q24.13 syntrophin, beta 1 (dystrophin-associated protein A1, 59kDa, basic component 1) HAS2 8q24.13 hyaluronan synthase 2 MRPS36P3 8q24.13 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S36 pseudogene LOC389683 8 LOC389683 LOC392265 8 similar to Cell division protein kinase 5 (Tau protein kinase II catalytic subunit) (TPKII catalytic subunit) (Serine/threonine protein kinase PSSALRE) LOC389684 8 LOC389684
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    27 - 3276 - 914 lowest expression levels both in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues among the three isoforms Narita, Kawagoe, Giganti (2008)
  • 156-bp insert coding for 52 amino acids in the central domain
  • 25 splicing 3120 99 863 high expression were detected in peripheral tissues, whereas lower expression levels were observed in the central nervous system, particularly expressed in adipocytes and in retina Narita, Kawagoe, Giganti (2008)
    - - - - 889 highly detected in total brain, and also particularly expressed in adipocytes and in retina Giganti (2008)
  • lacks the same 52-amino acid insertion found in melanoma autotaxin but contains an additional 25 residues in the C-terminal third of the protein
  • EXPRESSION
    Type widely
    constitutive of
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Hearing/Equilibriumear   highly
    Nervousbrain   specific
     nerve   highly
    Respiratorylung    
    Urinarykidney    
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period pregnancy
    Text placenta
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a short N-terminal intracellular domain involved in the targeting to the plasma membrane
  • a single transmembrane domain
  • a large extracellular domain encompassing two consecutive somatomedin-B-like domains
  • a catalytic domain
  • a poorly characterized C-terminal domain
  • HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        plasma membrane
    text type II transmembrane glycoprotein
    basic FUNCTION
  • phosphodiesterase I, brain type/nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity
  • type II ectonucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase enzymehaving a lysophospholipase D activity
  • augments invasive and metastatic potential of tumor cells
  • playing a critical role in vascular development
  • having a lysophospholipase D activity
  • plays a significant role in initiating and sustaining tumor metastasis
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
    cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral       gain of function
    in clear cell renal carcinoma with good outcome
    tumoral     --over  
    in glioblastoma multiforme
    constitutional     --over  
    in frontal cortex of Alzheimer-type dementia patients
    tumoral     --over  
    in undifferentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines (UTC) and tumor tissues as compared to follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) cell lines
    tumoral     --over  
    with AGK, were frequently expressed in prostate cancer cells and precancerous high-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target a potential target of treatments for Alzheimer disease
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS