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FLASH GENE
Symbol ELK1 contributors: mct - updated : 26-11-2014
HGNC name ELK1, member of ETS oncogene family
HGNC id 3321
Location Xp11.23      Physical location : 47.494.920 - 47.510.003
Synonym name
  • ETS-like gene 1
  • ETS domain-containing protein Elk-1
  • DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 15.08 kb     6 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    text
  • two alternatively spliced isoforms of Elk1 mRNA within the 5'UTR
  • the 5'UTR of ELK1 mRNA is a complexed mosaic of elements like uAUGs, uORFs and RNA structure that interplay to modulate ribosomal access to the ELK1 AUG start codon (PMID: 17591614)
  • identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    7 - 2939 - 428 - 2009 19013529
    6 - 2833 - 428 - 2009 19013529
    6 - 2056 - 95 - -
    10 - 2110
    EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveintestinesmall intestine  highly
    Lymphoid/Immunelymph node   moderately
    Reproductivefemale systemuteruscervix highly
     male systemprostate  moderately
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • N-terminal region (AAs 132) in the ETS domain responsible for ELK-1 dimerization in the cytosol
  • a domain (Box B) mediating the interaction with serum response factor (SRF)
  • a domain (Box C) regulating transcriptional activation
  • many putative microtubule binding domains, with the strongest binding prediction in AAs 314-325
  • a proline-rich hydrophobic motif (AAs 187216) between the B and S domains that could be the recognition element for E3 ligases
  • conjugated PhosphoP
    mono polymer heteromer , trimer
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to rattus Elk1
    ortholog to murine Elk1
    homolog to C. elegans lin-1
    intraspecies homolog to ets protooncogene 1
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • divergent member of the winged helix-turn-helix superfamily
  • ETS family of transcription factors
  • ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily
  • CATEGORY regulatory , transcription factor , protooncogene
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytoskeleton,microtubule
    intracellular,nucleus
    text anchored to neuronal microtubules in resting or unstimulated cells, and upon stimulation is phosphorylated, which relocalizes phospho-ELK1 to the nucleus in neurons
    basic FUNCTION
  • stimulating transcription
  • decreasing cell viability upon its association with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex
  • involved in the regulation of immediate-early genes such as c-fos upon mitogen activation, and thus commonly implied in cell proliferation
  • important for synaptic plasticity and interact with microtubules
  • uses different DNA binding modes to regulate functionally distinct classes of target genes
  • ELK1 and GABPA ultimately control the same biological process, but they do so by regulating different cohorts of target genes associated with cytoskeletal functions and cell migration control
  • directs selective and sustained gene induction that is a substantial and critical component of growth signaling by AR in prostate cancer cells
  • role of ELK1 in the differences between pluripotent stem cells with distinct X chromosome inactivation statuses.
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
  • being a nuclear target for the ras-raf-MAPK signaling cascade
  • CENTA1-RAS-ELK1 signaling pathway acts on mitochondria to regulate dendritic spine density and synaptic plasticity in response to APP in hippocampal neurons
  • a component
  • forming a ternary complex with the serum response factor and the ETS and SRF motifs of the fos serum response element
  • PTK2/ELK1 complex is found, mainly, in the cytoplasm, near the nuclear membrane periphery, raising the possibility that ELK1 may have alternative extranuclear function
  • on mitogenic stimulation, phosphorylated on C-terminal serine and threonine residues by MAPK1
  • associated with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex
  • among the SENPs, ELK1 preferentially forms a complex with SENP1
  • INTERACTION
    DNA binding to serum response element of c-fos
  • binding to purine-rich DNA sequences
  • RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • a ternary complex factor 1
  • SRF transcription factor
  • can biochemically interact with microtubules
  • binding-protein partner for PTK2, a finding that significantly broadens the potential functioning of PTK2 and ELK1
  • binding of ELK1 to the SERPINE1 promoter and ELK1 phosphorylation on the Ets binding site is EGF-dependent
  • SMN1 is a novel target of ELK1, and the ETS motifs in the SMN1 promoter are involved in this regulation
  • RUNX1 and ELK1, two proteins with essential functions in hematopoiesis, regulate MECOM in acute myeloid leukemia
  • ELK1 activated KATNB1 promoter
  • FBXO25 interacts and mediates ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the ELK1 protooncogene regulator
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    activated by several mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism SNP cosegragation of T108A with mental retardation
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    neurologyneurodegenerativealzheimer
    CENTA1-RAS-ELK1 signaling pathway is a new pharmacological target for Alzheimer disease
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS