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FLASH GENE
Symbol DRD4 contributors: mct/npt - updated : 06-02-2018
HGNC name dopamine receptor D4
HGNC id 3025
Corresponding disease
PTNS personality trait of novelty seeking
Location 11p15.5      Physical location : 637.304 - 640.703
Synonym name
  • seven transmembrane helix receptor
  • D(2C) dopamine receptor
  • Synonym symbol(s) DRD2C, D4DR
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 3.40 kb     4 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    motif repetitive sequence
    text structure
  • polymorphic number (2-10 copies) of tandem 48 nt repeats, exon III tandem repeat
  • elevated DRD4 promoter methylation was associated with Alzheimer Disease risk in males
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked Y status confirmed
    Physical map
    IFITM1 11p15.5 interferon induced transmembrane protein 1 (9-27) IFITM3 11p15.5 interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 (1-8U) PKP3 11p15 plakophilin 3 LOC387734 11 similar to beta 1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-transferase-III FLJ25045 11p15.5 hypothetical protein FLJ25045 SIGIRR 11p15.5 single Ig IL-1R-related molecule PTDSS2 11p15 phosphatidylserine synthase 2 RNH 11p15.5 ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor LOC387735 11 similar to Collagen alpha 1(V) chain precursor HRAS 11p15.5 v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog DKFZp761L1518 11p15.5 hypothetical protein DKFZp761L1518 MGC35138 11p15.5 hypothetical protein MGC35138 C11orf13 11p15,5 chromosome 11 open reading frame 13 KIAA1542 11p15.5 CTD-binding SR-like protein rA9 IRF7 11p15,5 interferon regulatory factor 7 MUCDHL 11p15,5 mucin and cadherin-like SCT 11p15.5 secretin DRD4 11p15.5 dopamine receptor D4 LOC387736 11 LOC387736 DEAF1 11p15,5 deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor 1 (Drosophila) LOC283232 11p15.5 hypothetical protein LOC283232 EPS8L2 11p15.5 EPS8-like 2 TALDO1 11p15.5-p15.4 transaldolase 1 FLJ34283 11p15.5 hypothetical protein FLJ34283 NS3BP 11p15.5 NS3BP BM88 11p15.5 NS3BP SLC25A22 11p15.5 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier: glutamate), member 22 LOC387737 11 LOC387737 LRDD 11pter-p15.5 leucine-rich and death domain containing RPLP2 5q31 ribosomal protein, large P2 TTS-2.2 11p15.5 transport-secretion protein 2.2 MGC45840 11p15.5 hypothetical protein MGC45840 CD151 11p15.5 CD151 antigen POLR2L 11p15 polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide L, 7.6kDa TM4SF7 11p15.5 transmembrane 4 superfamily member 7 MGC3234 11p15.5 hypothetical protein MGC3234
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    4 - 1360 - 419 - 2017 29051383
    EXPRESSION
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularvesselartery    Homo sapiens
    Nervousbrain   moderately
    Visualeye    
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectivebone   
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period fetal
    Text fetal eyes, lens, eye anterior segment, optic nerve, retina, retina foveal and macular, RPE and Choroid
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • seven transmembrane segments (7TM) receptor
  • HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • G-protein coupled receptor 1 family
  • D2-like receptor family
  • CATEGORY receptor membrane G
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • dopamine receptor D4, with high affinity for antagonist clozapine
  • stimulating the DRD4 is likely essential in maintaining the normal rhythmic production of ADCY1 from transcript to enzyme activity
  • putative involvement of SLC6A3 and DRD4 genes in the aetiology of ADHD with a main role in modulation of key dimensions of the disorder
  • regulatory role of DRD4 on AGTR1 expression and function in in the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)
  • plays an essential role in cAMP regulation and gap junctional coupling in the photoreceptors, where DRD4 expression is under circadian control
  • DRD4, requires two arrestins for desensitization and internalization, and opens up the possibility that other G-protein coupled receptors may require more than one arrestin for desensitization and/or internalization
  • DRD4 is a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling neurotransmission
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • KLHL12 is a novel interaction partner of the DRD4 that functions as an adaptor in a CUL3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to target the receptor for ubiquitination
  • inhibit proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by insulin via down-regulation of insulin receptor expression
  • KLHL12, a BTB-Kelch protein, specifically interacts with the polymorphic repeats of the DRD4 and enhances its ubiquitination, which, however, has no influence on receptor degradation
  • KLHL12 strongly promotes ubiquitination of the two- and four-repeat variant but has hardly any effect on ubiquitination of the seven-repeat DRD4
  • ARRB1, ARRB2 bind constitutively to the most common DRD4 polymorphic variants and to KLHL12 and all three proteins can interact within a single macromolecular complex
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    Other palmitoylation of the C-terminal tail of DRD4 is required for surface expression, endocytosis, and signaling
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) PTNS
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --low  
    by hypermethylation, DRD4 promoter methylation was significantly higher in AD patients than in controls
    Susceptibility
  • to Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders
  • to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with preferential transmission of paternal alleles
  • to dyslexia (DYX7)
  • to migraine without aura
  • to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) related to oxidative stress
  • to schizophrenia
  • to age related changes in brain glucose metabolism
  • Variant & Polymorphism repeat , other
  • association with seven repeat allele (VNTR) in exon 3 in attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome
  • exon 3 VNTR allele protecting against migraine without aura (DeSousa 2007)
  • carriers of the 7R allele appear to be less sensitive to the effects of age on brain glucose metabolism
  • male-specific association between DRD4 gene methylation and schizophrenia
  • DRD4 GG genotype, that had been exposed to high DMP levels (more than the median), and had high HNE-MA levels had a significantly increased risk for developing ADHD
  • Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cardiovascularaquired 
    may be a potential therapeutic target to reduce the effects of insulin on artery remodeling
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • Drd4 knock-out mice, when compared with wild-type and heterozygous mice, displayed a 7-9.7p100 decrease in lifespan, reduced spontaneous locomotor activity, and no lifespan increase when reared in an enriched environment
  • expression of the gene Adcy1, is downregulated in mice lacking Drd4