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FLASH GENE
Symbol CXCL2 contributors: mct - updated : 22-01-2015
HGNC name chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2
HGNC id 4603
Location 4q13.3      Physical location : 74.962.763 - 74.964.997
Synonym name
  • GRO2 oncogene
  • growth related oncogene (GRO beta) see IMC2@
  • melanoma growth stimulatory activity beta
  • macrophage inflammatory protein 2-alpha2
  • Synonym symbol(s) GROB, MIP2A, SCYB2, GRO2, M2A, CINC-2a, MGSA beta, MIP2-alpha, MIP2
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    SPECIAL FEATURE component of a cluster
    STRUCTURE 2.25 kb     4 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Map cen - IL8 - CXCL1 / PPBP / PF4 - CXCL5 / CXCL6 - CXCL2 / CXCL3 - CXCL11 - CXCL10 - CXCL9 - qter
    Physical map
    ALB 4q11-q13 albumin AFP 4q11-q13 alpha-fetoprotein AFM 4q11-q13 afamin RASSF6 4q21.21 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family 6 IL8 4q13-q21 interleukin 8 CXCL6 4q21 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (granulocyte chemotactic protein 2) PF4V1 4q13-q21 platelet factor 4 variant 1 CXCL1 4q21 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha) CXCL1P 4q21.21 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 pseudogene PF4 4q13-q21 platelet factor 4 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4) PPBP 4q12-q13 pro-platelet basic protein (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7) CXCL5 4q13-q21 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 CXCL3 4q21 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 SPBPBP 4q21.21 DNA-binding protein amplifying expression of surfactant protein B CXCL2 4q21 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 LOC255324 4q21.21 similar to ALGV3072 EREG 4q25-q26 epiregulin AREG 4q13-q21 amphiregulin (schwannoma-derived growth factor) BTC 4q13-q21 betacellulin DKFZP564O0823 4q13.3-q21.3 DKFZP564O0823 protein FLJ23604 4q21.21 hypothetical protein FLJ23604
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    4 - 1234 - 107 - -
    EXPRESSION
    Type
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveliver    
    Endocrinepancreas    
    Respiratorylung    
    Visualeye    
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    respiratorylungalveolar epitheliummacrophages 
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Endocrineislet cell (alpha,beta...)
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine macrophage inflammatory protein,2 alpha
    homolog to murine MIP2
    homolog to murine Cxcl2
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • intercrine alpha family
  • ELR-CXC chemokine family
  • CATEGORY signaling cytokine
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • produced by activated monocytes and neutrophils and expressed at sites of inflammation
  • critical C-X-C chemokine secreted by macrophages and epithelial cells, and a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils
  • CXCL1 and CXCL2 play important roles in the infiltration of neutrophils into the site of injection of necrotic cells
  • is a mediator in the development of sepsis
  • regulate immune functions mainly by chemo-attracting neutrophils
  • during osteoclastogenesis CXCL2 stimulated the adhesion and the migration of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs)
  • plays a role in bone destruction associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma
  • roles of chemokine ligand-2 (CXCL2) and neutrophils in influencing endothelial cell function and inflammation of human adipose tissue
  • mast cell and macrophage chemokines CXCL1/CXCL2 control the early stage of neutrophil recruitment during tissue inflammation
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • mediates PAFAH1B2-induced intestinal injury
  • plays an important role in leukocyte recruitment induced by both CXCL1 and CXCL2
  • serine-phosphorylated STAT1 bound to the promoters of the CXCL1 and CXCL2 genes, and NFKB1 and STAT1 control CXCL1 and CXCL2 gene transcription
  • IL1B-mediated regulation of the CXCL1 and CXCL2 genes in pancreatic beta-cells requires stimulus-induced changes in histone chemical modifications
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    Other activation of monocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine macrophage inflammatory protein,2 alpha
    homolog to murine MIP2
    homolog to murine Cxcl2
    Homologene
    FAMILY small inducible cytokine,chemokine alpha,CXC subfamily
    CATEGORY protooncogene , signaling cytokine growth factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
    CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
    cell & other
    REGULATION
    Other activation of monocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Susceptibility
  • susceptibility to severe sepsis
  • Variant & Polymorphism insertion/deletion , other a tandem repeat polymorphism (AC)n at position -665 in the CXCL2 gene may be an independent predictor of mortality for severe sepsis
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    osteoarticularbone 
    might be a useful therapeutic target for inflammatory bone destructive diseases
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS