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FLASH GENE
Symbol CXADR contributors: mct - updated : 21-03-3012
HGNC name coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor
HGNC id 2559
Location 21q21.1      Physical location : 18.885.329 - 18.939.264
Synonym name
  • coxsackievirus B-adenovirus receptor
  • 46 kD coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) protein
  • CVB3 binding protein
  • Synonym symbol(s) CAR, HCVADR, HCAR
    DNA
    TYPE anonymous DNA segment
    SPECIAL FEATURE arranged in tandem
    STRUCTURE 80.67 kb     7 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Binding site   HRE
    motif repetitive sequence   ALU
    text structure
  • in addition to the negative E2 box-mediated regulation the minimal CXADR promoter is positively regulated through conserved ETS and CRE elements
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    text three exon-skipping splice variant giving rise to truncated proteins, may be impairing virus binding
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    7 - 2492 40 365 - 2010 20361046
  • CAR(Ex7)
  • transmembrane isoform that differ only at the C-terminus
  • 8 - 1669 - 352 low-level expression of the CAR(Ex8) isoform in well-differentiated airway epithelia 2010 20361046
  • CAR(Ex8)
  • transmembrane isoform that differ only at the C-terminus
  • localizes to the apical membrane of epithelia where it augments adenovirus infection, and this localization may be responsible for initiation of respiratory adenoviral infections and appears to be regulated by interactions with PDZ-domain containing proteins
  • 5 splicing 5482 - 252 not expressed in normal cervical tissue but in most cervical carcinomas 2011 21431326
  • variant CAR4/6 that lacked exon 5 but retained exon 6 encoding the transmembrane domain
  • localized in the cell membrane
  • possible role in cancer progression
  • 4 - 5326
    3 - 5121 - 89 - 2003 12468544
    EXPRESSION
    Type
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Lymphoid/Immunelymphatic vessel   highly Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period fetal
    Text
  • predominantly expressed in the developing brain and heart
  • PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a globular ectodomain (two immunoglobulin domains)
  • a stalk (six residues)
  • a single transmembrane helix
  • and a cytoplasmic domain
  • conjugated GlycoP
    isoforms Precursor
    HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • Ig-like C2-type family
  • CATEGORY receptor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        plasma membrane
        intracellular
    text type I transmembrane glycoprotein
    basic FUNCTION
  • key adenoviral receptor mediating virus attachment to the cell-surface
  • functioning as a virus receptor
  • may affect cell migration through its interaction with microtubules
  • has a function in the propagation of excitation from the atrium to the ventricle that could explain the association of arrhythmia and Coxsackievirus infection of the heart
  • can stabilizes lymphatic endothelial cells/lymphatic endothelial cells interactions in the skin and may contribute to lymphatic vessel integrity
  • adhesion molecule found at the intercalated disc of cardiomyocytes in association with other adherens and tight junction proteins
  • primary cellular receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and most adenovirus serotypes and plays a crucial role in adenoviral gene therapy
  • CXADR and AMICA1 are cell signaling receptors of the immune system with implications for asthma, cancer, and chronic nonhealing wounds
  • AMICA1 and CXADR constitute an important cell-signaling complex of the immune system
  • viral receptor for Group B coxsackieviruses (CVBs) and adenoviruses
  • CXADR-induced stress-activated MAPK signaling may contribute to the development of cardiac inflammation unrelated to viral infection per se
  • represses CXADR expression in both PANC-1 (pancreatic) and MDA-MB-231 (breast) cancer cells (Pubmed 21791114)
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • CXADR and LNX1 are part of a larger protein complex that might have important functions at discrete subcellular localizations in the cell
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • integrins alpha V/beta 3, alpha V/beta 5 mediating virus entry into the cell
  • able to bind LNX1 (efficient binding to LNX1 required not only the consensus PDZ domain binding motif in the C terminus of CXADR but also upstream sequences)
  • is a partner in a protein complex organized at specific subcellular sites by LNX2
  • tubulin is an interaction partner for the cytoplasmic domain of CXADR
  • associated with CAV2 vesicles that also transported cargo as functionally distinct as tetanus toxin, neurotrophins, and their receptors
  • interaction of CXADR and alpha-catenin mediates the impact of CXADR on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and morphology
  • CXADR is a functional ligand for AMICA1 in the epidermis
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    inhibited by TGFbeta, that may inhibit CXADR expression by regulating factor(s) that cooperate with ZEB1 to repress the CXADR promoter, rather than by regulating ZEB1 expression levels
    repressed by ZEB1 (represses CXADR expression in both PANC-1 (pancreatic) and MDA-MB-231 (breast) cancer cells)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral        
    can affect cell adhesion which in the context of carcinogenesis may influence both invasion and metastatic spread
    constitutional     --over  
    increased CXADR expression can induce a cardiomyopathy
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS