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FLASH GENE
Symbol CTSG contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 23-11-2017
HGNC name cathepsin G
HGNC id 2532
Location 14q12      Physical location : 25.042.724 - 25.045.466
Synonym symbol(s) CTLA, CG, MGC23078, Catg
EC.number 3.4.21.20
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 2.74 kb     5 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Promoter
cytosine-phosphate-guanine/HTF
Binding site   transcription factor
text structure proximal promoter conferring myeloid-specific expression includes C/EBP, c-myb and PU.1 binding sites, and a GC-rich region, similar to a cis-element in the proteinase 3 promoter
MAPPING cloned Y linked   status confirmed
Physical map
TGM1 14q11.2 transglutaminase 1 (K polypeptide epidermal type I, protein-glutamine-gamma-glutamyltransferase) RABGGTA 14q11.2 Rab geranylgeranyltransferase, alpha subunit DHRS1 14q11.2 dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 1 C14orf21 14q11.2 chromosome 14 open reading frame 21 CIDEB 14q11.2 cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector b LTB4R2 14q11.2-q12 leukotriene B4 receptor 2 LTB4R 14q11.2-q12 leukotriene B4 receptor ADCY4 14q11.2 adenylate cyclase 4 RIPK3 14q11.2 receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 3 NFATC4 14q11.2 nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 4 KIAA1305 14q11.2 KIAA1305 HCDI CMA1 14q11.2 chymase 1, mast cell CTSG 14q11.2 cathepsin G GZMH 14q11.2 granzyme H (cathepsin G-like 2, protein h-CCPX) GZMB 14q11.2 granzyme B (granzyme 2, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase 1) STXBP6 14q11.2 syntaxin binding protein 6 (amisyn)
regionally located in a region involved in translocation, involved in T cell malignancies
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
5 - 924 - 255 - 2010 19910052
EXPRESSION
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Cardiovascularheart    
Reproductivemale systemprostate   
tissue
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow  highly
cells
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Blood/Hematopoieticmonocyte
Blood/Hematopoieticneutrophil Homo sapiens
cell lineage promyelocyte/promonocyte
cell lines
fluid/secretion blood
at STAGE
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • chymotrypsin-like proteinase (see SPAS@)
  • HOMOLOGY
    intraspecies homolog to neutrophil elastase
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • peptidase S1 family
  • CATEGORY enzyme , immunity/defense
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic,granule
    intracellular,nucleus
    text stored in the azurophil granules of neutrophil granulocytes
    basic FUNCTION
  • granule serine protease, oxygen independent phagocytosis of Gram- bacteria
  • may participate in the killing and digestion of engulfed pathogens, and in connective tissue remodeling at sites of inflammation
  • host-derived chemotactic agonist for FPRL1 and expand the functional scope of this receptor in inflammatory and immune responses
  • may play a role in the progression to heart failure by activating angiotensin II, leading to detrimental effects on the heart
  • activates F8 to a partially active form while having only a minor inactivating effect on thrombin-activated F8a
  • it is possible that cathepsin G from neutrophils and monocytes may provide some pro-coagulant effect by activating F8
  • role in antigen presentation and immune-related events
  • CTSG and ELANE are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory disorders
  • neutrophil-derived serine protease, inducing myocyte detachment and apoptosis by anoikis through down-regulation of focal adhesion (FA) signaling
  • during neutrophil activation, CTSG regulates the secretion/release of multiple peptide modulators of neutrophil functions, including ANXA1 and CAMP
  • ELANE and CTSG bind to the surface of cancer cells, presumably to a cell surface receptor, and subsequently undergo clathrin pit-mediated endocytosis
  • neutrophil CTSG is a physiologic modulator of platelet thrombus formation
  • importance of the cathepsin G (CTSG) in the context of arterial myeloid cell recruitment
  • is immobilized on arterial endothelium where it activates leukocytes to firmly adhere engaging integrin clustering, a process of crucial importance to achieve effective adherence under high-shear flow
  • may play an important role in muscle inflammatory cells infiltration by increasing the permeability of vascular endothelial cell
  • CELLULAR PROCESS protein, degradation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • F2RL3, mediating neutrophil platelet interaction at sites of vascular injury
  • IL33 is processed into mature bioactive forms by neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G
  • CTSG can process ANXA1 and CAMP to generate FPR1, FPR2 agonists, qand the more striking finding is the absolute requirement for CTSG in their efficient release/secretion from activated neutrophils
  • cytotoxic function for the serine protease CTSG and SERPINB1 is critical for maintaining polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) survival by antagonizing intracellular CTSG activity
  • proteolytic cleavage of PLTP by CTSG may enhance the injurious inflammatory responses that occur in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • LTF increases the catalytic activity of CTSG at physiological concentration, with its highest enhancing capacity under acidic (pH 5.0) conditions, and broadens the substrate selectivity of CTSG
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional       gain of function
    in dermatomyositis patients and correlated with disease activity
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • potential of ELANE and CTSG to be used as markers for early detection of infection
  • Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    bloodcoagulation 
    potential as a target for novel anti-thrombotic therapies
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS