Selected-GenAtlas references SOURCE GeneCards NCBI Gene Swiss-Prot Ensembl
HGNC UniGene Nucleotide OMIM UCSC
Home Page
Symbol CRY1 contributors: mct - updated : 07-02-2014
HGNC name cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like)
HGNC id 2384
Location 12q23.3      Physical location : 107.385.142 - 107.487.598
Synonym symbol(s) PHLL1, PLY
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 102.46 kb     13 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
Physical map
DKFZP434K0427 12q24.11 hypothetical protein DKFZp434K0427 LOC121054 12q24.11 similar to Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 18 (Cytokeratin 18) (K18) (CK 18) MGC40397 12q24.11 hypothetical protein MGC40397 FLJ38508 12q24.11 hypothetical protein FLJ38508 KIAA1033 12q24.11 KIAA1033 protein DIP13B 12q24.1 DIP13 beta LOC387882 12 hypothetical gene supported by AJ311377; BC013920 LOC390355 12 similar to dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 11; situs inversus viscerum; dynein, axon, heavy chain 11 LOC245718 12q24.11 similar to heat shock 70kD protein binding protein; progesterone receptor-associated p48 protein; putative tumor suppressor ST13; Hsp70-interacting protein ARK5 12q24.11 AMP-activated protein kinase family member 5 LOC341378 12q24.11 similar to thyroid hormone receptor interactor 11; thyroid receptor interacting protein 11 CKAP4 12q24.11 cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 MGC40368 12q24.11 hypothetical protein MGC40368 RPC2 12q24.11 RNA polymerase III subunit RPC2 RFX4 12q24 regulatory factor X, 4 (influences HLA class II expression) hSyn 12q24.11 brain synembryn LOC390356 12 similar to translation elongation factor eEF-1 beta chain - rabbit MGC17943 12q24.11 hypothetical protein MGC17943 LOC80298 12q24.1 transcription termination factor-like protein CRY1 12q23-q24.1 cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like) LOC390357 12 similar to Cca3 protein BTBD11 12q24.11 BTB (POZ) domain containing 11 PWP1 12q24.11 nuclear phosphoprotein similar to S. cerevisiae PWP1 PRDM4 12q23-q24.1 PR domain containing 4 ASCL4 12q24.11 class II bHLH protein ASCL4 LOC390358 12 similar to RET finger protein-like 3 LOC390359 12 similar to programmed cell death 2 isoform 2; zinc finger protein Rp-8; programmed cell death 2/Rp8 homolog KIAA0789 12q24.11 similar to programmed cell death 2 isoform 2; zinc finger protein Rp-8; programmed cell death 2/Rp8 homolog LOC196469 12q24.11 similar to apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G; phorbolin-like protein MDS019 CMKLR1 12q24.1 chemokine-like receptor 1 HYPE 12q24.1 chemokine-like receptor 1 SART3 12q24.1 squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognised by T cells 3 NIFU 12-q24.1 squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognised by T cells 3 LOC338773 12q24.12 hypothetical protein LOC338773 SELPLG 12q24 selectin P ligand CORO1C 12q24.1 coronin, actin binding protein, 1C SSH1 12q24.12 slingshot 1 DAO 12q24.12 D-amino-acid oxidase DKFZp761H039 12q24.12 hypothetical protein DKFZp761H039 USP30 12q23.3 ubiquitin specific protease 30 LOC121642 12q24.12 similar to hypothetical protein 9530023G02 UNG 12q23-q24.1 uracil-DNA glycosylase
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
13 - 3273 66.3 586 - 1999 10428031
Rna function photoreceptor
Type widely
   expressed in (based on citations)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Endocrineparathyroid   highly
Lymphoid/Immunethymus   highly
Reproductivemale systemtestis  highly
Respiratoryrespiratory tractlarynx  highly
cell lineage
cell lines
  • a mitochondrial transport signal in the N terminal region
  • a cryptochrome differentiating alpha-helical domain within the photolyase homology region (PHR), designated as CRY1-PHR(313-426), that is required for clock function and distinguishes CRY1 from CRY2
  • conjugated FlavoP
    mono polymer monomer
    interspecies homolog to plant blue-light receptors
  • blue light receptor family
  • DNA photolyase class-1 family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • DNA repair by excision of UV induced DNA damage, putatively involved in photoreactivation
  • light-independent inhibitor of CLOCK-ARNTL (BMAL1)
  • involved in the negative limb of the feedback loop
  • regulate the functional activity of circadian transcriptional complex at the posttranslational level
  • involved in the negative limb of the feedback loop
  • negative regulators of the circadian clock, stronger than PER proteins
  • CRY1 expression was elevated during the night-day transition, when it reduced fasting gluconeogenic gene expression by blocking glucagon-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP concentrations and in the protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of CREB
  • essential clock component, displaying evening-time expression and serves as a strong repressor at morning-time elements (E box/E' box)
  • phase delay in CRY1 transcription is required for mammalian clock function
  • specific mechanism through which CRY1, CRY2 couple the activity of clock and receptor target genes to complex genomic circuits underpinning normal metabolic homeostasis
  • CRY1 alone is able to maintain cell-autonomous circadian rhythms, whereas CRY2 cannot
    text circadian rythm
    signaling sensory transduction/vision
    a component core component of the mammalian circadian clock
    DNA binding
    small molecule cofactor,
  • one FAD per subunit
  • protein
  • USP2 interacts with CRY1 and enhances its protein stability via deubiquitination upon serum shock
  • FBXL21 stabilized CRY1 and CRY2 and antagonized the destabilizing action by FBXL3
  • CRY1 is an endogenous substrate for FBXL21- and FBXL3-catalyzed ubiquitination
  • KPNB1 interacts mainly with PER proteins and directs PER1/CRY1 nuclear transport in a circadian fashion
  • cell & other
    Phosphorylated by CSNK1E
    Other degraded via the FBXL3-mediated ubiquitination pathway, suggesting that it is also likely to be targeted by the deubiquitination pathway
    CRY1 and CRY2 repressor proteins are regulated by posttranslational modifications for temporally coordinated transcription of clock genes
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --low  
    epigenetic silencing of CRY1 in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL)
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
  • combined PER2 and CRY1 expression predicts outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • Therapy target
  • mice that are arrhythmic because of the deletion of Cry1 and Cry2 clock genes suffer from salt-sensitive hypertension