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FLASH GENE
Symbol CCL15 contributors: mct/npt - updated : 28-04-2020
HGNC name chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 15
HGNC id 10613
Location 17q12      Physical location : 34.324.663 - 34.329.100
Synonym name
  • leukotactin 1
  • new CC chemokine-like 3
  • small inducible cytokine subfamily A (Cys-Cys), member 15
  • MIP-1 delta
  • macrophage inflammatory protein 5
  • Synonym symbol(s) LKN1, LKN-1, NCC3, SY15, HCC-2, MIP-5, NCC-3, SCYL3, MIP-1d, SCYA15, HMRP-2B, MIP-1 delta, MRP-2B, SCYA15
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    SPECIAL FEATURE component of a cluster
    STRUCTURE 3.97 kb     4 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked   status provisional
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    4 - 1487 12.24 113 - 2012 22147696
    bicistronic transcript:includes the longer form of the downstream gene CCL14
    4 - 1439 12.24 113 - 2012 22147696
    bicistronic transcript: includes the shorter form of the downstream gene CCL14
    4 - 1070 12.24 113 - 2012 22147696
    monocistronic transcript
    4 - 588 - 113 - 2012 22147696
    EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart   highly
    Digestiveintestine     Homo sapiens
     liver   lowly
    Endocrinepancreas   lowly
    Lymphoid/Immunespleen   highly
    Respiratoryrespiratory tractbronchus  highly Homo sapiens
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Muscularsmoothciliary muscle   Homo sapiens
    Muscularstriatumskeletal  
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveepithelial cell Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period pregnancy
    Text lowly in placenta
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
    HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family
  • CATEGORY signaling cytokine
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria
    basic FUNCTION
  • inducing changes in intracellular calcium concentration in monocytes
  • may be chemoattracting immune cells into the plaques, inducing proinflammatory cytokine and producing thrombi by induction of tissue factor expression
  • exerts biological effects on a variety of cells, including monocytes (Shin 2005)
  • functions as an essential factor in the migration of monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils
  • pivotal roles of CCL15 in the regulation of the movement and development of eosinophils
  • role for constitutively expressed, epithelial-derived chemokines CCL14, CCL15 as antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal mucosa
  • CCL15 is a recently described chemo-attractant for neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes
  • potent chemoattractant for leukocytes and endothelial cells (ECs)
  • CCL15 increased cell adhesion of human monocytes to ECs under static and shear-stress conditions
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell migration & motility
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • CCR1, CCR3
  • interacting with CREB3 (Jang 2007)
  • CCL15 is a CC chemokine that binds to the CCR1 and CCR3
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    inhibited by NFKB (reducing chemotactic activity of CCL15)
    Other regulated by NF-kappaB (reported to be involved in the transcription of the CCL15 gene) (Shin 2005)
    regulated by AP-1 and NF-kappaB through MEK and JNK MAPK pathways in monocytoid cells (Shin 2005)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in chronic renal failure (Richter 2006)
    constitutional     --over  
    in the lung tissue of Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP)patients
    tumoral     --over  
    much stronger in Hepatocellular Carcinoma tumor tissues than in adjacent nontumor tissues
    Susceptibility to multiple sclerosis
    Variant & Polymorphism SNP increasing the risk of multiple sclerosis
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • may be a useful prognostic biomarker for Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP)
  • measurement of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and CCL15 in follicular thyroid lesions may be applied clinically to differentiate follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC)from follicular adenoma (FA)
  • Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cancerdigestiveliver
    blockade of CCL15-CCR1 axis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) could be an effective anticancer therapy
    immunologyinflammatory 
    CCR1 and CCL15 may be a potential target for treating inflammatory diseases involving upregulation of cell adhesion molecules
    allergyasthm 
    targeting the production of CCL15 by Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) might reduce the inflammatory response within the airways of asthmatic patients
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS