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Symbol BST2 contributors: mct - updated : 06-02-2019
HGNC name bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2
HGNC id 1119
Location 19p13.11      Physical location : 17.513.755 - 17.516.384
Synonym name TETHERIN
Synonym symbol(s) CD317, TETHERIN, BST-2, HM1.24 antigen, NPC-A-7
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 2.63 kb     5 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Promoter
Binding site   transcription factor
text structure
  • binding of the transcription factor AP2 to the BST2 promoter was attenuated by inhibition of the TGFB1 pathway thereby increasing BST2 expression in tumor cells
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked   status provisional
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    5 - 983 - 180 - 1995 7607676
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Reproductivefemale systemuteruscervix highly
     female systemovary  highly
    Urinarykidney   highly
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow    Homo sapiens
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Lymphoid/ImmuneB cell Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • N-terminal cytoplasmic tail (CT), and N-terminal membrane anchor remains in the host cell membrane creating a viral tether
  • small cytosolic domain and a TM helix at the N terminus (AAs 2244)
  • a predicted transmembrane helix,
  • an approximately 105-AAs-long disulfide-rich coiled coil structure predicted for the extracellular domain
  • a five AA deletion in its cytoplasmic domain that confers resistance to HIV Nef
  • two potential N-linked glycosylation sites
  • five cysteine residues: three in the extracellular domain and two in the intracellular domain
  • a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, extracellular domain , C-terminal membrane anchor of BST2 is inserted into the budding virus
  • conjugated GlycoP
    mono polymer homomer , dimer
    CATEGORY regulatory , antigen
        plasma membrane
  • type II transmembrane (TM) protein
  • surface molecule expressed on terminally differentiated B cells
  • expressed at the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, where it interacts indirectly with the underlying actin cytoskeleton
  • basic FUNCTION
  • involved in pre-B-cell growth
  • may play a role in B-cell activation in rheumatoid arthritis
  • provides a physical link between lipid rafts and the apical actin network in polarized epithelial cells and is crucial for the maintenance of microvilli in such cells
  • functions not only as an effector of the interferon-induced antiviral response but also as a negative feedback regulator of interferon production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells
  • directly holds fully formed enveloped virus particles to the cells that produce them, inhibiting their spread
  • may function as a tetramer at some stage, such as during trafficking, and strongly support a model in which the primary functional state of BST2 is a parallel disulfide-bound coiled coil that displays flexibility toward its N terminus
  • role for BST2 in the interaction between human monocyte and IFNG-stimulated endothelium
  • host antiviral molecule that functions to potently inhibit the release of enveloped viruses from infected cells
  • restriction factor that impedes HIV release by tethering mature virus particles to the plasma membrane
  • undergoes constitutive ESCRT-dependent sorting for lysosomal degradation and this degradation is enhanced by HIV-1 Vpu protein expression
  • antiviral factor that blocks the release of enveloped virions from infected cells
  • interferon-inducible protein that inhibits the release of a variety of enveloped viruses by tethering viral particles to the cell surface
  • is a homodimeric, lipid raft-associated type II integral membrane glycoprotein
  • tethers nascent Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) particles to the cell surface
  • play a role in the organisation of lipid rafts
  • is a host restriction factor against HCV, and induction of BST2 in hepatocytes could be one of the mechanisms by which current HCV standard therapy achieves a sustained virological response
  • BST2-mediated signaling may play a role in regulating the levels of transiently expressed proteins, highlighting a new function for BST-2 that may also have implications for viral inhibition
  • cysteine-linked dimerization of BST2 is necessary but not sufficient for inhibiting virus release, but the functional dimerization of BST2, is a property essential to its role as a restriction factor tethering viruses to the host cell
  • induced in neurons by type I interferon and viral infection but is dispensable for protection against neurotropic viral challenge
  • type I interferon (IFN-I)-stimulated host factor that restricts the release of HIV-1 by entrapping budding virions at the cell surface
  • acts as a major intrinsic antiviral protein that prevents the release of enveloped viruses by trapping nascent viral particles at the surface of infected cells
  • transmembrane protein that serves as a host defense factor against HIV-1 and other viruses by inhibiting viral spreading
  • BST2 possesses the oncogenic potential in GC by regulating the proliferation, apoptosis, and migratory ability of GC cells
  • plays an important role in the innate antiviral defense system by inhibiting the release of many enveloped viruses
  • is important in shaping the anatomical distribution and adaptive immune response against a persistent viral infection
    a component
    small molecule
  • novel function of IL27 as a direct stimulator of BST2 expression
  • TLR4/PI3K signaling pathway regulates both constitutive and LPS-induced BST2 expression
  • SGTA overexpression regulates BST2 expression and stability, thus providing insights into the function of SGTA in ER translocation and protein degradation
  • MMP14 inhibits the tetherin activity of BST2 by interacting with BST2, and the cytoplasmic domains of both BST2 and MMP14 play critical roles within this interaction
  • BST2 functions as an anti-apoptotic factor through the mitochondria-AIFM1 axis in malnourished condition
  • E3 ubiquitin ligases NEDD4 and MARCH8 are regulators of BST2 constitutive ubiquitylation and sorting to the lysosomes
  • BST2 is a negative regulator of DHX58-mediated type I IFN signaling by targeting MAVS
  • cell & other
    inhibited by negatively regulated by the TGFB1 axis in epithelial cells
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    associated with the formation of bone metastases in breast cancer
    tumoral     --over  
    in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and appears associated with negative CD38 expression
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
  • may be a potential biomarker in breast cancer with bone metastasis
  • Therapy target
    augmentation of BST2 activity and the inhibition of virally encoded antagonists, in particular Vpu, represent new approaches to the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection
    could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of Gastric carcinom
    may serve as a potential drug target for cancer therapy