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FLASH GENE
Symbol BAD contributors: mct/pgu - updated : 03-12-2009
HGNC name BCL2-associated agonist of cell death
HGNC id 936
Location 11q13.1      Physical location : 64.037.300 - 64.052.176
Synonym name
  • BCL2-antagonist of cell death
  • Bcl-XL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter
  • BCL2-antagonist of cell death protein
  • BCL2-binding component 6
  • Bcl-2-like 8 protein
  • Synonym symbol(s) BBC2, BCL2L8, BBC6
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 14.88 kb     4 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site
    text structure
  • binding of NF-kappaB to the BAD promoter
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Physical map
    LOC283248 11q13.1 hypothetical protein LOC283248 FLJ13848 11q13.1 hypothetical protein FLJ13848 COX8 11q13.1 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIII OTUB1 11q13.1 OTU domain, ubiquitin aldehyde binding 1 LRP16 11q11 LRP16 protein LOC387776 11 LOC387776 FLRT1 11q12-q13 fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein 1 STIP1 11q13.2 stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 (Hsp70/Hsp90-organizing protein) URP2 11q13.1 UNC-112 related protein 2 short form MGC11134 11q13.1 tRNA splicing 2' phosphotransferase 1 MGC13045 11q13.1 hypothetical protein MGC13045 DNAJC4 11q13 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 4 VEGFB 11q13 vascular endothelial growth factor B FKBP2 11q13.1 FK506 binding protein 2, 13kDa PPP1R14B 11q13 protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B PLCB3 11q13.1-q13.2 phospholipase C, beta 3 (phosphatidylinositol-specific) BAD 11q12.3 BCL2-antagonist of cell death C11ORF4 11cen-q22.3 chromosome 11 hypothetical protein ORF4 KCNK4 11q13 potassium channel, subfamily K, member 4 ESRRA 11q12-q13 estrogen-related receptor alpha HSPC152 11q13.1 hypothetical protein HSPC152 PRDX5 11q13.1 peroxiredoxin 5 FLJ37970 11q12.3 hypothetical protein FLJ37970 RPS6KA4 11q11-q13 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 4 LOC387777 11 LOC387777 FLJ37045 11q13.1 hypothetical protein FLJ37045 SLC22A11 11q13.1 solute carrier family 22 (organic anion/cation transporter), member 11 SLC22A12 11q13.1 solute carrier family 22 (organic anion/cation transporter), member 12 NRXN2 11q13.2 neurexin 2
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    3 splicing 986 18.4 168 - 2002 12239175
    encoding the same protein
    3 splicing 1240 18.4 168 - 2002 12239175
    encoding the same protein
    EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart    
    Digestivesalivary gland   highly
    Endocrinepancreas   highly
    Lymphoid/Immunethymus   moderately
    Nervousnervecranial nerve  highly
     spinal cord    
    Reproductivemale systemprostate  highly
    Respiratorylung   highly
    Urinarykidney    
    Visualeye   highly
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / Hematopoieticbone marrow   
    Epithelialsecretoryglandularendocrine 
    Epithelialsecretoryglandularexocrine 
    Lymphoid    
    Nervouscentral   
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticneutrophil
    cell lineage
    cell lines ovarian cancer, prostate cancer
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • one Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain, required by BIK, BID, BAK, BAD and BAX for their pro-apoptotic activity and for their interaction with anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 family
  • three phosphorylation sites Ser 75, Ser 99, Ser 118
  • secondary structure an helix
    mono polymer heteromer , dimer
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to rattus Bad (77.8pc)
    homolog to murine Bad (77.8pc)
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • BCL2 family
  • CATEGORY regulatory
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria,outer
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
    text translocated to cytosol when inactivated by phosphorylation
    basic FUNCTION
  • involved in positive regulation of cell apoptosis by protein-binding activity
  • involved in cytokine-dependent survival pathways
  • promoting cell death, and acting as a link between growth factor receptor signaling and the apoptotic pathways
  • having bifunctional activities in both beta cell survival and insulin secretion, and regulating the physiologic adaptation of beta cell mass during high-fat feeding
  • mediator of tuberin effects on the regulation of apoptosis
  • may be involved in glucose metabolism
  • pro-apoptotic BCL2 family protein that plays a critical role in the regulation of apoptotic response
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell cycle
    cell life, cell death/apoptosis
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • heterodimerizing with Bcl2, BCLXL, BCLW
  • pore forming activity upon phosphorylation
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • binding to TWHalpha proteins (ser 7S-ser99 phosphorylated form)
  • binding to S100A10 protein
  • regulated by heat shock proteins and the ubiquitin-poteasome pathway
  • interacting with PIM3 (can inactivate BAD by phosphorylating its Ser(112) in colon cancer cells and thus may prevent apoptosis and promote progression of colon cancer)
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    activated by Ca2+ calmodulin
    TSC2
    inhibited by phosphorylation by Raf-1
    phospharylation at Ser 118 by CAPK (protein kinase A)
    phosphorylation by RSK-MAP kinase pathway
    phosphorylated by PIM2 on serine 112, which accounts in part for its ability to reverse Bad-induced cell death
    repressed by PI3 kinases pathway
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    increased levels in prostate carcinomas, enhancing tumor growth by stimulation of proliferation of prostate cancer cells, while BAD dephosphorylation increases prostate cancer cells apoptosis
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS