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FLASH GENE
Symbol APOBEC3A contributors: mct/shn - updated : 15-12-2017
HGNC name apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalyic polypeptide-like 3A
HGNC id 17343
Location 22q13.1      Physical location : 39.353.526 - 39.388.783
Synonym name
  • phorbolin 1
  • phorbolin-1
  • probable DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3A
  • Synonym symbol(s) ARP3, PHRBN, hA3A, bk15OC2.1, A3A
    EC.number 3.5.4.-
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    SPECIAL FEATURE arranged in tandem, component of a cluster
    STRUCTURE 5.66 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Map cen - D22S1156 - D22S272 - APOBEC3A - D22S1155 - D22S428 - qter
    Authors Jarmuz (02)
    Physical map
    LOC388900 22 LOC388900 TOMM22 22q12-q13 translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 22 homolog (yeast) C22orf2 22q12 chromosome 22 open reading frame 2 KIAA0063 22q13.1 chromosome 22 open reading frame 2 GTPBP1 22q13.1 GTP binding protein 1 UNC84B 22q13.1-q13.3 unc-84 homolog B (C. elegans) DNAL4 22q13.1 dynein, axonemal, light polypeptide 4 LOC388901 22 LOC388901 NPTXR 22q13.1 neuronal pentraxin receptor CBX6 22q13.1 chromobox homolog 6 APOBEC3A 22q13.1-q13.2 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3A APOBEC3B 22q12-q13 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3B APOBEC3C 22q12-q13 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3C APOBEC3D 22q12-q13 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3D APOBEC3E 22q12-q13 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3E pseudogene APOBEC3F 22q12-q13 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3F APOBEC3G 22q12-q13 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G ARP10 22q13.1 ARP10 protein COX5BL7 22pter-p13 cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb-like 7 CBX7 22q13.1 chromobox homolog 7 LOC391332 22 similar to hepatitis C virus core-binding protein 6; cervical cancer oncogene 3
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    5 splicing 1444 20 199 - 2013 23977391
    5 splicing 1103 20 199 - 2013 23977391
    EXPRESSION
    Type
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticleukocyte Homo sapiens
    Skin/Tegumentkeratinocyte Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • three zinc ligands
  • a single deaminase domain (active sites required for antiviral function)
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to APOBEC3A, Pan troglodytes
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • APOBEC3 cytidine deaminase gene family
  • family of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) DNA cytosine deaminases
  • CATEGORY enzyme , RNA associated
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm
    intracellular,nucleus
    text localized to both the cytoplasm and nucleus
    basic FUNCTION
  • RNA editing enzyme having roles in growth or cell cycle control
  • potent inhibitor of LTR-retrotransposon function (
  • may influence the development of tumors (Vartanian 2008)
  • inhibits the replication of the parvovirus adeno-associated virus (Narvaiza 2009)
  • deaminates foreign double-stranded DNA cytidines to uridines (Stenglein 2010)
  • can lead to induction of DNA breaks and activation of damage responses in a deaminase-dependent manner (
  • in contrast to the processive APOBEC3G, did not appear to deaminate ssDNA with high processivity and was less effective in causing HIV gene inactivation
  • APOBEC3A deaminations induce mostly conservative amino acid changes, suggesting that most somatic hypermutation events would not lead to gene inactivation
  • is a myeloid lineage-specific DNA cytosine deaminase with a role in innate immunity to foreign DNA
  • APOBEC3A induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest and triggered several members of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway
  • is a single-domain cytidine deaminase that converts deoxycytidine residues to deoxyuridine in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)
  • lacks strong antiviral activity against lentiviruses but is a potent inhibitor of adeno-associated virus and endogenous retroelements
  • APOBEC3A cytidine deaminase induces RNA editing in monocytes and macrophages
  • APOBEC3A- and APOBEC3B-induced mutagenesis primarily results from the deamination of the lagging strand template during DNA replication
  • APOBEC3 proteins function within the innate immune system by mutating DNA of viral genomes and retroelements to restrict infection and retrotransposition
  • APOBEC3A (A3A) expression leads to DNA damage in replicating cells but this is reduced in quiescent cells
  • its expression caused ATR-dependent phosphorylation of CHEK1 and cell-cycle arrest, consistent with replication checkpoint activation
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell cycle
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS immunity/defense
    text innate immunity defense mechanism (Stenglein 2010)
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
  • specific binding of single-stranded DNA is regulated by the cooperative dimerization of APOBEC3A
  • RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • TRIB3 is an interactor for APOBEC3A and APOBEC3C
  • efficiently deaminates methylated, but not TET1-oxidized, cytosine bases in DNA
  • cell & other
  • monocytic cells use a cytoplasmic retention mechanism to control APOBEC3A and avert genotoxicity during innate immune responses
  • REGULATION
    induced by interferons following DNA detection (Stenglein 2010)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in pediatric and adult acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS