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Symbol APOBEC3A contributors: mct/shn - updated : 15-12-2017
HGNC name apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalyic polypeptide-like 3A
HGNC id 17343
Location 22q13.1      Physical location : 39.353.526 - 39.388.783
Synonym name
  • phorbolin 1
  • phorbolin-1
  • probable DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3A
  • Synonym symbol(s) ARP3, PHRBN, hA3A, bk15OC2.1, A3A
    EC.number 3.5.4.-
    TYPE functioning gene
    SPECIAL FEATURE arranged in tandem, component of a cluster
    STRUCTURE 5.66 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Map cen - D22S1156 - D22S272 - APOBEC3A - D22S1155 - D22S428 - qter
    Authors Jarmuz (02)
    Physical map
    LOC388900 22 LOC388900 TOMM22 22q12-q13 translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 22 homolog (yeast) C22orf2 22q12 chromosome 22 open reading frame 2 KIAA0063 22q13.1 chromosome 22 open reading frame 2 GTPBP1 22q13.1 GTP binding protein 1 UNC84B 22q13.1-q13.3 unc-84 homolog B (C. elegans) DNAL4 22q13.1 dynein, axonemal, light polypeptide 4 LOC388901 22 LOC388901 NPTXR 22q13.1 neuronal pentraxin receptor CBX6 22q13.1 chromobox homolog 6 APOBEC3A 22q13.1-q13.2 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3A APOBEC3B 22q12-q13 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3B APOBEC3C 22q12-q13 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3C APOBEC3D 22q12-q13 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3D APOBEC3E 22q12-q13 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3E pseudogene APOBEC3F 22q12-q13 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3F APOBEC3G 22q12-q13 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G ARP10 22q13.1 ARP10 protein COX5BL7 22pter-p13 cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb-like 7 CBX7 22q13.1 chromobox homolog 7 LOC391332 22 similar to hepatitis C virus core-binding protein 6; cervical cancer oncogene 3
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    5 splicing 1444 20 199 - 2013 23977391
    5 splicing 1103 20 199 - 2013 23977391
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticleukocyte Homo sapiens
    Skin/Tegumentkeratinocyte Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • three zinc ligands
  • a single deaminase domain (active sites required for antiviral function)
    interspecies ortholog to APOBEC3A, Pan troglodytes
  • APOBEC3 cytidine deaminase gene family
  • family of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) DNA cytosine deaminases
  • CATEGORY enzyme , RNA associated
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    text localized to both the cytoplasm and nucleus
    basic FUNCTION
  • RNA editing enzyme having roles in growth or cell cycle control
  • potent inhibitor of LTR-retrotransposon function (
  • may influence the development of tumors (Vartanian 2008)
  • inhibits the replication of the parvovirus adeno-associated virus (Narvaiza 2009)
  • deaminates foreign double-stranded DNA cytidines to uridines (Stenglein 2010)
  • can lead to induction of DNA breaks and activation of damage responses in a deaminase-dependent manner (
  • in contrast to the processive APOBEC3G, did not appear to deaminate ssDNA with high processivity and was less effective in causing HIV gene inactivation
  • APOBEC3A deaminations induce mostly conservative amino acid changes, suggesting that most somatic hypermutation events would not lead to gene inactivation
  • is a myeloid lineage-specific DNA cytosine deaminase with a role in innate immunity to foreign DNA
  • APOBEC3A induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest and triggered several members of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway
  • is a single-domain cytidine deaminase that converts deoxycytidine residues to deoxyuridine in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)
  • lacks strong antiviral activity against lentiviruses but is a potent inhibitor of adeno-associated virus and endogenous retroelements
  • APOBEC3A cytidine deaminase induces RNA editing in monocytes and macrophages
  • APOBEC3A- and APOBEC3B-induced mutagenesis primarily results from the deamination of the lagging strand template during DNA replication
  • APOBEC3 proteins function within the innate immune system by mutating DNA of viral genomes and retroelements to restrict infection and retrotransposition
  • APOBEC3A (A3A) expression leads to DNA damage in replicating cells but this is reduced in quiescent cells
  • its expression caused ATR-dependent phosphorylation of CHEK1 and cell-cycle arrest, consistent with replication checkpoint activation
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell cycle
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS immunity/defense
    text innate immunity defense mechanism (Stenglein 2010)
    a component
  • specific binding of single-stranded DNA is regulated by the cooperative dimerization of APOBEC3A
  • RNA
    small molecule
  • TRIB3 is an interactor for APOBEC3A and APOBEC3C
  • efficiently deaminates methylated, but not TET1-oxidized, cytosine bases in DNA
  • cell & other
  • monocytic cells use a cytoplasmic retention mechanism to control APOBEC3A and avert genotoxicity during innate immune responses
    induced by interferons following DNA detection (Stenglein 2010)
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in pediatric and adult acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target