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FLASH GENE
Symbol GEM contributors: mct/npt - updated : 16-06-2015
HGNC name GTP binding protein overexpressed in skeletal muscle
HGNC id 4234
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • G3-GTP binding domain
  • a RAS-related domain and a membrane-association motif
  • a 12-amino acid fragment in the C terminus found to be crucial for and sufficient to produce Ca(v)beta-dependent inhibition, suggesting that this region forms an inhibitory site
  • a three-AA motif in the core was also found to be critical, possibly forming another inhibitory site
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Gem (95.59 pc)
    intraspecies homolog to RAD1
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • small GTPase superfamily
  • Ras/Gem/Kir (RGK) family
  • Rad, Rem, Rem2, Gem/Kir (RGK) family of small GTP-binding proteins
  • CATEGORY signaling cytokine
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytoskeleton,microtubule,mitotic spindle
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleoplasm,nuclear bodies
    basic FUNCTION
  • cell sprouting and reorganization of actin skeleton
  • possibly participating in receptor-mediated signal transduction at the plasma membrane
  • plays a role in regulating voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and cytoskeletal reorganization
  • endogenous GEM down-regulates the level of active RHOA and actin stress fibers
  • plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling.
  • small GTP-binding protein that plays a role in regulating Ca(2+) channels and cytoskeletal remodeling in interphase cells
  • spindle-associated protein and is required for proper mitotic progression
  • involved in regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity and inhibition of Rho kinase-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization, such as stress fiber formation and neurite retraction
  • plays an important role in cell-to-cell viral transmission
  • small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein, involved in the regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity and cytoskeleton reorganization
  • plays a crucial role in the regulation of cortical actin cytoskeleton that undergoes active remodeling during mitosis
  • new role of GEM/GMIP/RHOA signaling in cortical actin regulation during early mitotic stages
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell organization/biogenesis
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    text cell shape
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
  • RHOA GTPase is an important effector of GEM/GMIP signaling
  • a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule nucleotide,
  • GTP
  • protein
  • KIF9
  • binding Ca2+/calmodulin promoting the cytoplasmic localization of GEM
  • KPNA1 binds to Kir/GEM, and its depletion using RNA interference impairs nuclear translocation of this RGK protein
  • GTP-bound GEM interacts with the membrane-cytoskeleton linker protein Ezrin in its active state, and GEM binds to active Ezrin in cells
  • interacting directly with the beta subunit (CACNB1) and then inhibiting high voltage activated Ca2+ channel activities
  • GEM contributes to the mitotic progression by maintaining correct spindle length through the kinesin KIF9
  • regulation of spindle positioning by GEM involves its downstream effector GMIP
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    induced by mitogens
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    leads to stress fiber disruption, actin and cell shape remodeling and neurite elongation in interphase cells
    constitutional        
    loss of GEM leads to misaligned chromosomes and prometaphase delay
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion