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FLASH GENE
Symbol GLUL contributors: mct - updated : 09-12-2013
HGNC name glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthetase)
HGNC id 4341
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
mono polymer homomer , octamer
HOMOLOGY
interspecies homolog to murine Glul (94.64 pc)
homolog to rattus Glul (92.49 pc)
Homologene
FAMILY glutamine synthetase family
CATEGORY enzyme
SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria
intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endoplasmic reticulum
intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
intracellular,nuclear envelope
basic FUNCTION
  • catalyzing the condensation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine
  • involved in ammonia detoxification and interorgan nitrogen flux
  • strategic enzyme in controlling glutamate concentration in bone environment, decreasing the amount of this signalling molecule while vitamin D and WNT signalling pathway increased it
  • can be found during early human fetal stages when it displays a significant effect on cell proliferation
  • its down-regulation may have an important pro-epileptogenic role in glioblastoma multiforme, through the slowing of glutamate-glutamine cycle
  • catalyzes the de novo synthesis of glutamine, an amino acid that has been shown to influence sperm motility
  • its presence in the post-acrosomal region of the perinuclear theca suggests that human sperm can carry out in glutamine synthesis
  • contributes to pancreatic regeneration
  • its expression is increased in regenerating hepatocytes and in early hepatocyte progenitor cells (HPCs) prior to morphological evidence of hepatocellular differentiation
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism aminoacid
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
    cell & other
    REGULATION
    Other reversible inhibition of GLUL by tyrosine nitration
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) GLUL
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in primary liver cancer
    tumoral     --over  
    in chronic hepatitis, focal nodular hyperplasia, peritumoural hyperplasia and some hepatocellular neoplasms
    constitutional     --low  
    in cirrhosis
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    diabetetype 1 
    can serve as novel targets in diabetes mellitus genetic therapy
    cancerbrainglioma/neuroblstoma
    manipulation of GLUL activity might constitute a novel principle for inhibiting seizures in patients with glioma epilepsy
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS