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Symbol KLF1 contributors: mct/pgu - updated : 09-06-2017
HGNC name Kruppel-like factor 1 (erythroid)
HGNC id 6345
  • a highly conserved 81 AA DNA binding domain
  • two transactivation domains EKLFTAD1 (AAs 140) and EKLFTAD2 (AAs 5190), and a domain (AAs 140232) that is sufficient for activation of beta-globin gene expression
  • three zinc finger of the Cys2-His2 type forming the DNA binding domain
  • KLF1 and KLF2 have highly homologous zinc finger DNA-binding domains
  • a nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the C terminus, with three C2H2-type zinc fingers (ZF)
  • krueppel C2H2-type zinc-finger protein family
  • CATEGORY regulatory , transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • red cell-specific transcription factor
  • activating the beta globin synthesis in fetal liver and adult bone marrow
  • directs different modes of tissue-specific transcriptional activation depending on the architecture of its target core promoter
  • hematopoietic-specific transcription factor that is critical for the activation of subset of erythroid genes
  • essential transcription factor for beta-type globin gene switching, and specifically activates transcription of the adult beta-globin gene promoter
  • recruited to the gamma-globin gene promoter as a co-activator and is required for gamma-globin gene induction by short-chain fatty acid derivatives
  • master regulator of adult beta-globin gene expression, and is also implicated in erythroid processes other than beta-globin gene regulation, such as cell maturation and cell membrane integrity
  • restricts megakaryocytic differentiation to the benefit of erythrocytic differentiation and suggest that this might be at least partially mediated by the inhibition of FLI1 recruitment to megakaryocytic and FLI1 gene promoters
  • likely in coordination with other transcription factors, directly contributes to the complex set of events that occur at the final erythroid cell divisions and accentuates terminal differentiation directly by activation of CDK inhibitors such as CDKN1A
  • erythroid transcription factor, that plays a critical role in the expression of globin genes, but also in the expression of a wide spectrum of genes potentially essential for erythropoiesis
  • potentially controls globin gene switching by directly activating beta-globin and indirectly repressing gamma-globin gene expression
  • regulates definitive erythropoiesis of red blood cells by facilitating transcription through high affinity binding to CACCC elements within its erythroid specific target genes including those encoding erythrocyte membrane skeleton (EMS) proteins (
  • plays an important role in erythroid development by stimulating beta-globin gene expression
  • plays essential roles in embryonic and adult erythropoiesis
  • KLF1 and KLF2 positively regulate the embryonic and fetal beta-globin genes through direct promoter binding
  • distinct yet overlapping mechanistic roles for KLF1 and KLF2 in embryonic red blood cells
  • erythroid-specific transcription factor required for the transcription of genes that regulate erythropoiesis
  • KLF1, KLF2, and MYC control a regulatory network essential for embryonic erythropoiesis
  • important role for the KLF1-BCL11A axis in erythroid maturation and developmental regulation of globin expression
  • acts as a direct activator of genes that encode repressors of gamma-globin gene expression, and is a regulator of many components of the cell cycle machinery
  • crucial zinc finger transcription factor, is expressed in the erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs), and plays an extrinsic role in erythroid maturation by being expressed in the supportive macrophage of the erythroblastic island and regulating relevant genes important for island integrity within these cells
  • in erythroid cells, expression of KLF1 precedes PGF, and its enforced expression in human erythroid progenitor cells induces PGF mRNA
  • KLF1 and KLF2 coordinately regulate embryonic erythroid precursor maturation through the regulation of multiple homeostasis-associated genes
  • is an erythroid specific transcription factor that binds to regulatory regions of erythroid genes
  • regulates BCL11A, a known repressor of adult gamma-globin expression
  • role of KLF1 in gamma-globin regulation in fetal erythroblasts is complex, with both positive and negative facets
  • transcription factors such as KLF1, along with epigenetic modifiers, play crucial roles in establishing the proper onset and progression of terminal differentiation events in erythropoiesis
  • essential transcription factor that is required for the proper maturation of the erythroid cells
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, chromatin organization, remodeling
    nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    a component
    DNA binding to the CACCC site of the promoter and the locus control region LCR-HB-NA@ through a remodeling of chromatin involving a complex including SMARCB1, SMARCC1, SMARCC2 and BRG
    small molecule
  • repressing KLF3 (BKLF)
  • associates with both KLF3 promoters (is typically an activator of transcription, whereas KLF3 is a repressor)
  • interacts with TATA binding protein-associated factor 9 (TAF9), which leads to important consequences for expression of adult beta-globin
  • interacting with BCL11A (KLF1 may control BCL11A expression by both direct and indirect mechanisms)
  • activates a diverse set of genes associated with erythropoiesis, including the beta-globin gene (
  • KLF1 and KLF2 bind directly to the promoters of the HBE1 and HBG1, HBG2 genes
  • through EKLFTAD2 binds the N-terminal PH domain of the GTF2H1 and four domains of EP300
  • PPM1B interacts with KLF1 via its PEST1 sequence
  • BCL11A expression is activated by KLF1, leading to HBG1, HBG2 repression
  • DOK2 is able to control KLF1 expression by transcriptional regulation through directly binding to its promoter region
  • KLF1 binds to the FOXM1 gene promoter in blood cells
  • HIRA is not only critical for HBB expression but is also required for activation of the erythropoietic regulators KLF1 and GATA binding protein 1 (GATA1)
  • KLF1 plays a role in facilitating and/or stabilizing GATA1 and TAL1 occupancy in the erythroid genes, contributing to the generation of active chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and chromatin looping
  • PIAS3 is a transcriptional corepressor of KLF1 for at least a subset of its target genes during erythropoiesis
  • is a critical factor that interacts with an essential upstream enhancer element of the KLF1 promoter and exerts a positive effect on KLF1 levels
  • amount of KLF1 expression strongly positively correlates with HBB mRNA and weakly positively correlates with BCL11A mRNA
  • cell & other
    corresponding disease(s) CDAN4
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional germinal mutation      
    inactivating mutations is the first demonstration of a blood group phenotype resulting from mutations in a transcription factor (form the molecular basis of the rare blood group In(Lu) phenotype)
    constitutional     --low  
    would relieve gamma-globin gene repression in adult erythroid progenitors
    constitutional germinal mutation      
    KLF1 mutations modulate the phenotype in a cohort of alpha-thalassemia carriers
    constitutional germinal mutation      
    KLF1 gene promoter mutation (KLF1:g.-148G&8201;>&8201;A) is associated with increased HbF level
  • to increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels
  • Variant & Polymorphism other KLF1 variations are associated with increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    controlled knockdown of KLF1 in adult erythroid progenitors may provide a method to activate fetal hemoglobin expression in individuals with beta-thalassemia or sickle cell disease
  • adult Nan/+ mice exhibit lifelong hemolytic anemia with spherocytosis, whereas Nan/Nan embryos die in utero at 12.5 days gestation (